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Hall of Supreme Harmony 紫禁城-太和殿 (397)
Beijing

太和殿:

      1、太和殿,俗称金銮殿,是东方三大殿之一(紫禁城太和殿、曲阜孔庙大成殿、泰山岱庙天贶殿)。位于北京紫禁城南北主轴线的显要位置。明永乐十八年(1420年)建成,称奉天殿。明嘉靖四十一年(1562年)改称皇极殿。清顺治二年(1645年)始名太和殿。自建成后屡遭焚毁,又多次重建,现为清康熙三十四年(1695年)重建后形制。

      2、太和殿是紫禁城内体量最大、等级最高的建筑物。它面阔十一间,进深五间,长64米,宽37米,高26.92米,连同台基通高35.05米,建筑面积2377M²。殿前有宽阔的平台,称为丹陛,俗称月台。月台上陈设日晷、嘉量各一,铜龟、铜鹤各一对,铜鼎18座。龟、鹤为长寿的象征。日晷是古代计时器,嘉量是古代的标准量器,二者均是皇权的象征。殿下为高8.13米的三层汉白玉石雕基座,周围环以栏杆。栏杆下安有排水用的石雕龙头,每逢雨季,可呈现千龙吐水的奇观。

      3、太和殿是中国规格、等级最高的古建筑。重檐庑殿顶,屋脊两端安有高3.4米、重约4300公斤的大吻,檐角安防十个走兽,这在中国古建筑史上是独一无二的,显示了至高无上的的重要地位。首个饰物是骑凤仙人,之后是十个小兽:龙、凤、狮子、天马、海马、狻猊、狎鱼、獬豸、斗牛、行什。在其他古建筑上一般最多使用九个走兽。这里有严格的等级界限,只有太和殿才能十兽齐全。

      4、太和殿装饰十分华丽。檐下施以密集的斗拱,室内外梁枋上饰以级别最高的和玺彩画。门窗上部嵌成菱花格纹,下部浮雕云龙图案,接榫处安有镌刻龙纹的鎏金铜叶。殿内金砖铺地(因而又名金銮殿),殿内地面共铺就二尺见方的大金砖4718块。金砖不是用黄金制成,而是在苏州特制的砖,这种砖烧制程序极为复杂,一块砖起码要炼上一年。太和殿共有72根大木柱支撑其全部重量。其中顶梁大柱最粗最高,直径为一米零六,高为十二米七零。明代用的是楠木,采自川、广、云、贵;清代重建后,用的是东三省深林之中的松木。

      5、太和殿明间设九龙金漆宝座,宝座两侧排列六根直径一米的沥粉贴金云龙图案的巨柱,宝座前两侧有四对陈设:宝象、甪端、仙鹤和香亭。宝象象征国家安定和政权的巩固;甪端是传说中的吉祥动物;仙鹤象征长寿;香亭寓意江山稳固。宝座上方天花正中安置形如伞盖向上隆起的藻井。藻井正中雕有蟠卧的巨龙,龙头下探,口衔宝珠。

      6、太和殿是举行各种典礼的场所。明清两朝24位皇帝都在太和殿举行盛大典礼,如皇帝登基即位,皇帝大婚、册立皇后,命将出征;此外每年的万寿节、元旦、冬至三大节,皇帝在此接受文武百官的朝贺,并向王公大臣赐宴等。

      1945年10月10日10点10分,景山山顶军号长鸣,太和殿主会场礼炮齐鸣,美军司令罗基少将、华顿参谋长,英、法、苏联、荷兰代表等,中方孙连仲将军,立于太和殿台基下的受降台正中,日军代表20多人俯首低眉从太和门左侧入场,走到受降台前,向孙连仲行礼。接着日方的代表根本博在投降书上签字并盖章,将战刀放置在受降桌上,黯然从熙和门左门退场。典礼只有短短的25分钟,但当天在太和殿、午门、端门乃至天安门,前来观礼的总人数达到十万余人,目睹这一幕的在场中国人无不群情振奋,欢声雷动。

Copyright: Dxinwei
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 8198x4099
Uploaded: 08/01/2014
Updated: 08/08/2014
Zobrazení: 100
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More About Beijing

Overview and HistoryIn the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.Getting ThereThe Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!TransportationWithin the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. 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