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城門(銀禧)水塘鐘形溢流口 Shing Mun (Jubilee) Reservoir Bellmouth Overflow
Sheung Shing Valley 雙城峽/城門峽

城門水塘(英語:Shing Mun Reservoir)是香港新界西南部的一個水塘,位於荃灣區城門谷一帶,為第一個把所儲存的水由新界區輸往港島區使用的水塘。為區別下城門水塘,城門水塘又稱為上城門水塘。亦因如此,廣義上,城門水塘是指上城門水塘及下城門水塘;而狹義上,城門水塘則是上城門水塘的真正名稱。由於落成年是當年英皇登基25年,上城門水塘亦被名為銀禧水塘。值得一提,由於整個城門水塘群剛好處於新界東與西的分界線上,上城門水塘被劃屬界線以西(屬荃灣區),下水塘則劃入界線以東(屬沙田區),所以,從廣義而言,城門水塘地既處新界西,亦處新界東。而貫穿兩地者便是1990年通車、同樣以該地地名「城門」命名的城門隧道,其共兩組隧道之間均以高架橋連接,並正正在下城門水塘和城門峽上方跨過。城門水塘於1923年開始興建,由於工程浩大,香港政府聘請英國工程顧問阿歷山大·賓尼及迪勤公司(Sir Alexander Binnie Son & Deacon)的技術人員及曾興建星洲山頂水塘的南洋工人參與興建,工人人數一度高達2,160人。由於工程時間緊迫,加上未完全掌握使用炸藥的技術,發生多宗意外傷亡事件,更有不少工人感染瘧疾。城門水塘於建造前有8條主要村落,稱「城門八村」,分別為城門老圍、白石窩、碑頭肚、石頭見、芙蓉山、南房肚、大碑瀝和張屋。在興建水塘前被安排搬遷到新界的錦田、大埔及粉嶺等不同的地方。第一期工程完成時,耗資413.7萬港元,水塘水深200呎,可儲水9億加侖。及後第二期工程於1935年展開,除了將主壩由115呎加高至275呎及加建82呎高的菠蘿凹副壩(Pineapple Pass Dam),同時還興建了九龍接收水塘及石梨貝濾水廠。兩期工程於1936年完工後,整個城門水塘儲水量達30億加侖,為當時英國本土及屬土中最大的儲水庫。由於落成時正值紀念英皇佐治五世登基25年,水塘曾易名為銀禧水塘(Jubilee Reservoir)[1]。第三期工程於1935年9月展開,直到1939年第三條海底輸水管建成後才告完工,水塘全期耗資950多萬港元。位於針山以南的下城門水塘(Lower Shing Mun Reservoir)始建於1961年,於1965年開始供水,容水量429.9萬立方米,約為城門水塘三分之一,是船灣淡水湖供水計劃一部份,兩個水塘儲水量共1,758萬立方米。城門水塘為醉酒灣防線的一部份,是香港保衛戰的遺跡之一。

Copyright: Njohn
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 6680x3340
Uploaded: 13/08/2013
Updated: 18/08/2014
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Tags: 城門(銀禧)水塘鐘形溢流口 shing mun (jubilee) reservoir bellmouth overflow; jubilee reservoir bellmouth overflow
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njohn
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More About Hong Kong

Overview and HistoryHong Kong sits on the south coast of China, on the Pearl River Delta. It's got a population of more than seven million people and is one of the most densely populated places on earth. It also appears to be putting into place the template for population management, which cities around the world will be implementing as soon as they can afford it. More on that later.Archaeological evidence dates human activity beneath present-day Hong Kong back to the stone age. The area was first settled by people from the mainland during the Han dynasty, around the beginning of the common era (the P.C. term for when B.C. changed to A.D. Whoa!)For hundreds of years, Hong Kong was a small fishing community and haven for travelers, with a few pirates here and there. Then whitey showed up.Western influence reached China at the beginning of the 15th century, when all those great explorers in boats were cruising for loot in strange and mysterious places. Tea and silk were the commodities connecting eastern Europe to China, and Hong Kong was known as a safe harbor through which to pass. When you're carrying the Queen's tea, it's especially important to avoid ARRRRRRguments with pirates. Hyuk hyuk hyuk.Seriously folks -- in the eighteenth century Britain was doing a booming business with China, offering Indian opium to balance their extensive purchases of fine porcelains and everything else. The opium was ordained to be for medicinal purposes only, of course.Well, as you may imagine, the Chinese got sick of opium fiends junking up the place, so they attempted to stop the British suppliers, to no avail. The Opium Wars resulted and ended with China ceding Hong Kong to the British, in fear of their massive naval power. This took place in the year 1841.Colonization soon followed, Hong Kong shot up in value as an international port, and its population increased dramatically. In 1898 Britain acquired additional territories on a 99 year lease -- expiring in 1997. Does that year sound familiar? Read on.In the 20th century Hong Kong changed hands several times. The British surrendered it to Japan during World War Two, then took it back after Japan's defeat, then gave it to China later. Immediately following the war, Hong Kong served as a safe haven for hundreds of thousands of Chinese refugees, while the Chinese National Government was losing its civil war against communist leadership.The population of Hong Kong exploded as corporations seeking to escape Chinese isolationism arrived and set up shop. Cheap labor in the textile and manufacturing industries steadily built up the economy and ensured foreign investment. By the end of the 20th century Hong Kong had become a financial mammoth offering banking services to the world.In 1997 Hong Kong returned to Chinese rule with a few stipulations in place to guarantee its economic autonomy, as much as possible. The phrase "one country, two systems" was coined by the Chinese to describe the relationship between the mainland and Hong Kong.Getting ThereWell, where do you want to get to from the Hong Kong International Airport? There are ferries servicing six mainland ports in the Pearl River Delta Region. Airport Express Railway connects directly to downtown Hong Kong, and it has been rated the best airport in the world multiple times.The Airport Express Railway will get you into Hong Kong in about an hour, for $100. Public buses cost $10 and take a little longer. For direct service to your hotel you can take one of the hotel's private buses ($120+) or a taxi ($300+). As you can see, waiting time is optional for those who can afford it.Here's a little blurb on travel times, with further information for access to nearby cities (cross-boundary transport).TransportationGrab an Octopus card when you arrive. Octopus is the world's first electronic ticket-fare card system and the Hong Kong public transportation system is the world leader in people-moving. 90% of Hong Kongers get around on public transportation.Octopus covers the Airport Rail line, buses, ferries, the rapid-transit MTR network, supermarkets, fast food outlets, phone booths... It's how to get around the cashless economy.Nevermind the microchip built into it, you'll get used to having one of those on you at all times -- and soon they'll be internal! What do I mean? Many schools in Hong Kong even use the Octopus card to check attendance, because you read the card's data with an external scanner from a distance. This will the global norm soon. What if that chip is installed in your body? It's in the works baby!The hilly Hong Kong terrain also demands some special modes of transportation. If you've been to Pittsburgh, you may have some idea of how cool it is to ride a cable car up the side of a mountain, overlooking a majestic harbor and city. Multiply that by about ten thousand and you've got Hong Kong: vertical-travel trams, moving sidewalks, and the world's longest outdoor escalator system.People and CultureThe local currency is the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) which is pegged to the U.S. dollar. Official languages are Chinese and English.  You're on your own, baby!  Dive into the swarming, throbbing, pulsing, crawling and teeming mix!Things to do & RecommendationsThe Peak Tower and its shopping Galleria are the biggest tourist attraction in Hong Kong so don't miss it.Cool off in the Kowloon Park public indoor swimming pool!After that, go see what's happening at the Hong Kong Fringe Club, a non-profit organisation which puts together exhibitions for international artists and performers.Organize sports fans flock to the Hong Kong Stadium, but there's good news for disorganized sportistas too -- Mountain biking is now legal in the parks! Have at it, baby!All this excitement is going to make you hungry. Springtime is traditionally the time to celebrate seafood, summer is for fruits, and winter steams with hot pot soups to keep you warm.The best thing to do is go and find some dim sum. Dozens of plates of tasty small items, sort of like sushi but it's cooked, and the varieties are endless.Since you won't be able to walk down the street without complete and total sensory overload, I'll just whap in the Hong Kong tourist board's guide to dining and leave you to your intuition.Good luck, take it slow and above all -- DON'T SPIT OUT YOUR CHEWING GUM ON THE SIDEWALK. Gum is legal but there's a $500 fine for intentional littering. Enjoy!Text by Steve Smith.