Centralny Square - Buildings of Centralny Square
The centre of the urban complex of Nowa Huta was designed in the years 1949 - 1952 by T. Ptaszycki and his team: B. Skrzybalski, A. Fołtyń, J. Ingarden, T. Janowski, S. Juchnowicz, and T. Rembiesa. The goal to make the new city reflect grand European urban centres became one of the prime objectives of Polish Socialist Realism. The Square remains unfinished: the central obelisk has never been raised, nor has the Square been closed with a monumental Culture Centre as was planned. Designed by J. Ingarden, the structures on the sides of the square were constructed from the year 1952 to 1956 and bring to mind Renaissance and Baroque structures. The Nowohuckie Culture Centre built on the southern side of the Square (Z. Pawelski, 1974 - 1983) and the Centrum E residential district (R. Loegler with team, 1988 - 1995) in the post - modernist style violate the original concept of Ptaszycki's (from http://www.krakow.pl/en/turystyka/content.php?id=trasy/trasa_nowohucka/trasa.html)
Aleja Róż, Aleja Przyjaźni Streets - Aleja Róż Street closed by the design of city hall In the centre...
St. Bartholomew's Church stands opposite to the Cistercian Abbey. It is one of the oldest surviving e...
The Nowa Huta reservoir is one the most charming places in the Nowa Huta district. Reservoir and surr...
A cross commemorating the death of B. Włosik shot by state security during the demonstration of 13th ...
Jan Matejko's House
The village of Krzesławice was first mentioned in the 13th century. During ...
In the 6th century a mound was erected there by the Vistula People, one of the Polish tribes.
Nowa Huta was a model city built by the Communist authorities to attract people from lower socioecono...
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.