St. Francis of Assisi Church - By Night
Saint Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni Francesco di Bernardone; 1181/1182 – October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Franciscan Order, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the lay Third Order of Saint Francis. St. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.
Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant in Assisi, and he lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he begged with the beggars at St. Peter's. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon amassed a following. His order was endorsed by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which was an enclosed order for women, as well as the Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the order. Once his organization was endorsed by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas manger scene. In 1224, he received the stigmata, making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died in 1226 while preaching Psalm 141.
On July 16, 1228, he was pronounced a saint by Pope Gregory IX. He is known as the patron saint of animals, the environment and one of the two patrons of Italy (with Catherine of Siena), and it is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of 4 October.
Francis of Assisi was one of seven children born to Pietro di Bernardone, a rich cloth merchant, and his wife Pica, about whom little is known except that she was originally from France. Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born, and Pica had him baptised as Giovanni di Bernardone in honor of Saint Albert Renner, in the hope he would grow to be a religious leader. When his father returned to Assisi, he took to calling him Francesco ("the Frenchman"), possibly in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French. According to another account[who?], it was due to the boy being able to speak and sing in French fluently and effortlessly because of his French mother teaching him. Either way, the name Francesco soon replaced his baptismal name.
As a youth, Francesco—or Francis in English—became a devotee of troubadours and was fascinated with all things French. Although many hagiographers remark about his bright clothing, rich friends, and love of pleasures, his displays of disillusionment toward the world that surrounded him came fairly early in his life, as is shown in the "story of the beggar." In this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms. At the conclusion of his business deal, Francis abandoned his wares and ran after the beggar. When he found him, Francis gave the man everything he had in his pockets. His friends quickly chided and mocked him for his act of charity. When he got home, his father scolded him in rage.
In 1201, he joined a military expedition against Perugia and was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada, spending a year as a captive. It is possible that his spiritual conversion was a gradual process rooted in this experience. Upon his return to Assisi in 1203, Francis returned to his carefree life and in 1204, a serious illness led to a spiritual crisis. In 1205, Francis left for Puglia to enlist in the army of the Count of Brienne. A strange vision made him return to Assisi, deepening his ecclesiastical awakening.
According to the hagiographic legend, thereafter he began to avoid the sports and the feasts of his former companions; in response, they asked him laughingly whether he was thinking of marrying, to which he answered "yes, a fairer bride than any of you have ever seen," meaning his "lady poverty." He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment. By degrees he took to nursing lepers, the most repulsive victims in the lazar houses near Assisi. After a pilgrimage to Rome, where he begged at the church doors for the poor, he said he had a mystical vision of Jesus Christ in the Church of San Damiano just outside of Assisi, in which the Icon of Christ Crucified said to him, "Francis, Francis, go and repair My house which, as you can see, is falling into ruins." He took this to mean the ruined church in which he was presently praying, and so he sold some cloth from his father's store to assist the priest there for this purpose.
His father Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to change his mind, first with threats and then with beatings. After legal proceedings before the bishop, Francis renounced his father and his patrimony, laying aside even the garments he had received from him. For the next couple of months he lived as a beggar in the region of Assisi. Returning to the countryside around the town for two years this time, he restored several ruined churches, among them the Porziuncola, a little chapel of St. Mary of the Angels just outside the town, which later became his favorite abode.
Founding of the Franciscan Order
At the end of this period (on February 24, 1209, according to Jordan of Giano), Francis heard a sermon that changed his life. The sermon was about Matthew 10:9, in which Christ tells his followers they should go forth and proclaim that the Kingdom of Heaven was upon them, that they should take no money with them, nor even a walking stick or shoes for the road. Francis was inspired to devote himself to a life of poverty.
Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Gospel precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance. He was soon joined by his first follower, a prominent fellow townsman, the jurist Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work. Within a year Francis had eleven followers. Francis chose never to be ordained a priest and the community lived as "lesser brothers," fratres minores in Latin. The brothers lived a simple life in the deserted lazar house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time wandering through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression upon their hearers by their earnest exhortations.
Francis' preaching to ordinary people was unusual since he had no license to do so. In 1209 he composed a simple rule for his followers ("friars"), (the Regula primitiva or “Primitive Rule”) which came from verses in the Bible. The rule was “To follow the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps.” In 1209, Francis led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious order. Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company Giovanni di San Paolo, the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina. The Cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope. Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day. After several days, the pope agreed to admit the group informally, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured.[ This was important in part because it recognized Church authority and prevented his following from possible accusations of heresy, as had happened to the Waldensians decades earlier. Though Pope Innocent initially had doubts, following a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the Basilica of St. John Lateran (the bishopric seat of the Pope and cathedral of Rome, thus the 'home church' of all Christendom), he decided to endorse Francis' order. This occurred, according to tradition, on April 16, 1210 and constituted the official founding of the Franciscan order. The group, then the "Lesser Brothers" (Friars Minor or Franciscan Order), preached on the streets and had no possessions. They were centered in Porziuncola, and preached first in Umbria, before expanding throughout Italy.
Nachtaufnahme mit Blick über die Donau, direkt neben der Reichsbrücke und dem Mexikoplatz (mit einer ...
Saint Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni Francesco di Bernardone; 1181/1182 – October 3, 1226) was an I...
Overview and History
The history of Vienna is synonymous with that of Europe's biggest empire, so hang on to your weiner schnitzel.
Vienna was named "Vindomina" by Celtic tribesmen around 500 B.C. The Romans called it "Vindobona", which means "good wine," and some remains from the Roman garrison there can be found at Hoher Market. Since it was on the outskirts of the Roman Empire, it suffered much chaos and destruction during Volkerwanderung (AKA "let's pillage").
Throughout the later Middle Ages Vienna lived under the rule of the Babenberg family. They steadfastly warded off those persistent Mongolian raiders who keep popping up just when you least expect them.
During the third great Crusade (1192 A.D), Richard the Lionhearted was captured near Vienna and held for a ransom most foul which amounted to eleven tons of silver! This tidy sum was collected from England and used for the creation of a mint and city walls, major steps in Vienna's ascension to proper city status.
Good old kidnapping, who can get enough of it? You can still see remains of these city walls in the metro stop at Stubentor.
1278 A.D. marked the beginning of Hapsburg rule over the Austrian lands, snatched from the clutches of Bohemian King Otokar II. This reign would last almost seven centuries and grow to be Europe's largest empire.
Vienna twice defended against Ottoman attackers in the 16th and 17th centuries. As the story goes, the Viennese strained coffee technique traces its roots back to these Turks, who left sacks of coffee beans in the wake of their hasty retreat.
Emperor Josef II granted freedom of religious expression in 1781, immediately attracting the likes of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. These composers created masterpieces of western music in service of the blossoming Viennese opera houses and concert halls.
Vienna officially became capital of the Austrian Empire in 1804, of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after 1867, and capital of First Austrian Republic after WWI. The Hapsburg dynasty ended in 1918 with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which launched WWI.
Between the two World Wars, Austria experienced a revolution (the February Uprising) and autocratic government. Austria was captured by Germany and then Russia during WWII, but emerged as a sovereign nation again at the end of the war. However, it remained a divided and occupied city for another ten years, a period when international espionage cloaked more than a dagger or two within its four bristling regions.
In recent history Vienna has become like a second capital of Europe after Brussels. In the 1970's Vienna built the Vienna International Center, a complex to house one of the four United Nations offices. Along with the UN, this complex houses OPEC headquarters, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Test Ban Organization, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Did you know that OSCE is the world's largest intergovernmental organization?
I wonder what Sigmund Freud would say?
Vienna has a smooth, well-built public transportation system. Like Prague, the city layout is organized by numbered districts which begin in the center and radiate outwards.
You can get around here on buses, trams, trains and the underground metro. Don't forget to stamp your ticket in the blue machine!
People and Culture
Well, the border guards still check passports even though Austria is part of the "borderless" Schengen zone. In other words, Austria is a lot more formal than neighboring Slovakia and Czech Republic. Be advised.
Food to sniff around for:
wiener schnitzel -- pounded flat veal, breaded and sauteed in clarified butter.
Eat it with dumplings, chase it with apple strudel, remember it over your palatschinken the next morning (these are like crepes).
And of course, about every forty-five minutes you should be visiting a cafe for another magic coffee. Austrian caffeine addiction is legendary.
Vienna is also one of the world's few capital cities which still has its own vineyards. Go for a Riesling tasting next time you're in town.
Things to do & Recommendations
First off, location is everything. You can get to Vienna by bicycle on the greenway bike path, how cool!
Opera, baby! We didn't really get into detail, but Vienna's opera houses and theaters are some of the best in all of Europe. Visit the Burgtheater, Volkstheater Wien and Theater in der Josefstadt, at the very least.
Across the Danube you should take a stroll through the Karmeliter district, which has a cool art scene and lots of bars. You know how art makes you thirsty.
For late night munchers, head to the area around Naschmarkt, maybe Cafe Drechsler or Grafin vom Naschmarkt, serving traditional Austrian chow for longer than anyone can remember.
If that's not enough, you can throw pretzels in the world's oldest zoo, or maybe even at the Vienna boy's choir, but not in any of the 100+ art museums.
And of course we are skipping all the obvious stuff such as Maria Theresien Platz, the residences of Beethoven, Mozart's grave... the list goes on. Seven centuries of royalty will accumulate quite a bit of architecture and noteworthy collections. Have fun!
Text by Steve Smith.