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Himmelstempel / 天壇 / 天坛/ Tiāntán Peking
Beijing

Der Himmelstempel (chinesisch 天壇 / 天坛 Tiāntán) ist eine Tempelanlage in Peking, in der die Kaiser der Ming- und Qing-Dynastien jedes Jahr für eine gute Ernte beteten. Die Anlage liegt im Xuanwu-Bezirk im Süden der Stadt inmitten eines großen Parks. Die gesamte Anlage ist von einer doppelten Mauer umgeben. Im nördlichen Teil der Anlage haben die Mauern einen runden Grundriss, während der südliche Grundriss viereckig ist. Von oben betrachtet sieht der Mauergrundriss also wie eine langgezogene Kuppel aus. Diese Form rührt aus der Vorstellung, dass der Himmel rund und die Erde eckig sei. Durch die doppelte Mauer um die gesamte Anlage in einem Abstand von etlichen Metern entsteht ein innerer und ein äußerer Bereich des Tempels. Die wichtigsten Gebäude der Anlage befinden sich im inneren Bereich. Auch der innere Bereich ist von einer Mauer unterteilt und bildet so einen nördlichen und einen südlichen Teil des Tempels. Im nördlichen Teil befindet sich das wichtigste Gebäude des Tempels, die Halle der Ernteopfer (Qíniándiàn 祈年殿), ein Gebäude mit kreisförmigem Grundriss auf einer dreistufigen Marmorterrasse. Sie wurde 1420 von Kaiser Yongle errichtet, brannte 1889 ab und wurde 1890 neu errichtet und ist ein Wahrzeichen Pekings. Dieser nördliche Bereich diente hauptsächlich als Altar im Frühjahr, um für die Ernte zu beten. Im südlichen Teil steht das zweite große Gebäude, die Halle des Himmelsgewölbes, eine kleinere, ebenfalls kreisrunde Tempelhalle. Sie ist umgeben von der Echo Mauer, einer absolut glatten und exakt kreisförmigen Mauer. Durch die runde Form werden Schallwellen an der Mauer entlanggeführt und können überall an der Mauer wahrgenommen werden. Spricht man also gegen die Echo-Mauer, kann man selbst an der gegenüberliegenden Stelle hören, was gesagt wurde. Die südliche Halle diente zusammen mit der dreistufigen Marmorterrasse, die sich ebenfalls im südlichen Teil befindet als Altar während der Wintermonate. Die Marmorterrasse, sowie die nördliche und südliche Halle stehen auf einer Nord-Süd-Achse im Zentrum der gesamten Anlage. Die Hallen sind durch die 360 Meter lange Danbi-Brücke miteinander verbunden. Diese Brücke verbindet also den nördlichen und südlichen Teil der Anlage. Die gesamte Tempel-Achse mit Terrasse und Hallen ist 1200 Meter lang und wird von alten Bäumen flankiert. Damit ist der Himmelstempel nach eigenen Angaben die längste Anlage zur Himmels-Anbetung der Welt. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himmelstempel

Copyright: Florian Frey // Studiobaff.Com
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 10660x5330
Hochgeladen: 17/03/2012
Aktualisiert: 15/04/2014
Angesehen:

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Tags: temple of heaven; northside; temple of harvest; beijing; qing dynasties; taoist temple; heaven worship; 16th century; cultural; 天坛; ming dynasties
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Himmelstempel / 天壇 / 天坛/ Tiāntán Peking
More About Beijing

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From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. 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From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.Getting ThereThe Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. 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