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IX Fort

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Ninth Fort

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




The Ninth Fort (Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stronghold in the northern part of Šilainiai elderate, Kaunas, Lithuania. It is a part of the Kaunas Fortress, which was constructed in the late 19th century. During the occupation of Kaunas and the rest of Lithuania by the Soviet Union, the fort was used as a prison and way-station for prisoners being transported to labour camps. After the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany, the fort was used as a place of execution for Jews, captured Soviets, and others.


History






At the end of 19th century, the city of Kaunas was fortified, and by 1890 it was encircled by eight forts and nine gun batteries. The construction of the Ninth Fort (its numerical designation having stuck as a proper noun) began in 1902 and was completed on the eve of World War I. From 1924 on, the Ninth Fort was used as the Kaunas City prison.

During the years of Soviet occupation, 1940-1941, the Ninth Fort was used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia.

During the years of Nazi occupation, the Ninth Fort was put to use as a place of mass murder. At least 5,000 Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas, largely taken from the city's Jewish ghetto, were transported to the Ninth Fort and killed. Notable among the victims was Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman of Baranovitch. In addition, Jews from as far as France, Austria and Germany were brought to Kaunas during the course of Nazi occupation and executed in the Ninth Fort. In 1944, as the Soviets moved in, the Germans liquidated the ghetto and what had by then come to be known as the "Fort of Death", and the prisoners were dispersed to other camps. After World War II, the Soviets again used the Ninth Fort as a prison for several years. From 1948 to 1958, farm organizations were run out of the Ninth Fort.

In 1958, a museum was established in the Ninth Fort. In 1959, a first exposition was prepared in four cells telling about Nazi war crimes carried out in Lithuania. In 1960, the discovery, cataloguing, and forensic investigation of local mass murder sites began in an effort to gain knowledge regarding the scope of these crimes.


Museum


The Ninth Fort museum contains collections of historical artifacts related both to Soviet atrocities and the Nazi genocide, as well as materials related to the earlier history of Kaunas and Ninth Fort.

The memorial to the victims of Nazism at the Ninth Fort in Kaunas, Lithuania, was designed by sculptor A. Ambraziunas. Erected in 1984, the monument is 105 feet (32 m) high. The mass burial place of the victims of the massacres carried out in the fort is a grass field, marked by a simple yet frankly worded memorial written in several languages. It reads, "This is the place where Nazis and their assistants killed more than 30,000 Jews from Lithuania and other European countries."

[edit]External links


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: IX Fort

Kaunas' 9th fort Museum

Kaunas Ninth Fort Web Page by Jose Gutstein


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninth_Fort

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Imágenes cercanas en Lithuania

map

A: IX Fort HDR

por Saulius Baublys, a menos de 10 metros de distancia

Ninth FortFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Ninth Fort (Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stro...

IX Fort HDR

B: IX Fort Near The Monument

por Saulius Baublys, 110 metros de distancia

Ninth FortFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Ninth Fort (Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stro...

IX Fort Near The Monument

C: IX Fort Near The Monument HDR

por Saulius Baublys, 110 metros de distancia

Ninth FortFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Ninth Fort (Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stro...

IX Fort Near The Monument HDR

D: Mega Akvarium1

por Belmando Poll, a 1.6 km.

Mega Akvarium1

E: Eiguliai footbridge

por DJ-Maryxa MC, a 3.9 km.

Eiguliai footbridge

F: Fort VII Kaunas

por DJ-Maryxa MC, a 4.8 km.

Fort VII Kaunas

G: Pano 20140420 163412

por Mindaugas J., a 4.8 km.

Pano 20140420 163412

H: Kaunas Confluence

por DJ-Maryxa MC, a 5.0 km.

Kaunas, Nemunas & Neris confluence.

Kaunas Confluence

I: Bike Show Millenium 2012

por DJ-Maryxa MC, a 5.1 km.

Bike Show Millenium 2012

J: Pavesine Baltas Dviratis

por Belmando Poll, a 5.2 km.

Pavesine Baltas Dviratis

Este panorama fue tomado en Lithuania, Europe

Esta es una vista general de Europe

Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.

The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.

Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".

Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.

Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.

In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. 

Text by Steve Smith.

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