Temple of Heaven-East Tianmen 东天门 (1219)
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Temple of Heaven-East Tianmen 东天门 (1219)

The World > Asia > China > Beijing

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东天门:

      天坛公园总占地面积270万平方米,分为内坛和外坛。主要建筑物在内坛,南有圜丘坛。皇穹宇,北有祈年殿、皇乾殿。由丹陛桥将南北两坛连接。外坛古柏苍郁,环绕着内坛。当初,为把天圆地方的形象体现在墙上,外坛墙的东南北三面原制无门,只西面,临永定门内大街有两座门:北门是明代旧有的,称“祈谷坛门”;南门是乾隆十七年(1752年)增建的,称“圜丘坛门”。两门均为三间拱券式,绿琉璃简瓦歇山式顶。

      现在天坛公园,园内有二百年以上的古柏二千五百多棵,种植了大量的花卉。四面各有一门,外坛的东门和北门,都是1975年以后增建的。俗称“东天门、北天门”。

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Imágenes cercanas en Beijing

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A: Clothes Changing Platform 具服台 (1225)

por Dxinwei, 170 metros de distancia

具服台:      丹陛桥桥东有一方形砖台,称具服台,三面有雕石栏杆,是皇帝祭祀时漱洗更衣的地方。每年在祈年殿举行祈谷礼时,先在此台上支搭圆形帷帐,称为“幄次”,通称“小金殿”,是个活动的房屋。皇帝由斋...

Clothes Changing Platform 具服台 (1225)

B: Temple of Heaven - area at top of palace steps bridge-2008

por jacky cheng, 190 metros de distancia

Temple of Heaven - area at top of palace steps bridge:Area at top of palace steps bridge site before ...

Temple of Heaven - area at top of palace steps bridge-2008

C: Red Stairway Bridge 丹陛桥 (1231)

por Dxinwei, 230 metros de distancia

丹陛桥:      丹陛桥也称海墁大道,为天坛内坛的主轴线,是连接祈年殿和皇穹宇的南北大道,长360米、宽29.4米的砖石平台。“丹”意为红,“陛”原指宫殿前的台阶。一条笔直坦荡的大道之所以又称“丹陛桥...

Red Stairway Bridge 丹陛桥 (1231)

D: Pray Valley Altar 祈谷坛 (1255)

por Dxinwei, 240 metros de distancia

祈谷坛:      祈谷坛,建于明永乐十八年(1420年),主要建筑有祈年殿、皇乾殿、东西配殿、祈年门、神厨、宰牲亭、长廊,附属建筑有内外墙、具服台、丹陛桥,内坛墙上东南西北各设天门,西外坛墙设祈谷坛门...

Pray Valley Altar 祈谷坛 (1255)

E: Beijing Temple of Heaven - qiniandian-2-2008

por jacky cheng, 240 metros de distancia

the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest:Constructed in the bright Yunglo 18 years (in 1420), initially th...

Beijing Temple of Heaven - qiniandian-2-2008

F: Temple of Heaven 天坛 (1291)

por Dxinwei, 250 metros de distancia

天坛:      天坛位于北京市崇文区在永定门内大街路东。原是明清两代皇帝祭祀皇天上帝的场所,始建于明永乐十八年(1420年),以后经过不断改扩建,至清乾隆年间最终形成。天坛占地273万平方米,1918...

Temple of Heaven  天坛 (1291)

G: Temple of Heaven

por Hung-Chin Wang, 280 metros de distancia

The temple was a place which the Ming and Qing dynasties' emperors hold the annual prayer ceremony fo...

Temple of Heaven

H: Temple of Heaven-seventy-two gallery 天坛长廊 (1213)

por Dxinwei, 280 metros de distancia

天坛长廊:      天坛长廊,也叫七十二长廊。祈年殿东边,在内墙东门外,有72间走廊,是祈谷寺的附属建筑。为连檐通脊式的一面暖房,北面砌砖南面安设大窗门,俗称“七十二连房”。长廊中部偏北,有五间“神库...

Temple of Heaven-seventy-two gallery 天坛长廊 (1213)

I: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈年殿 (1261)

por Dxinwei, 280 metros de distancia

祈年殿:      祈年殿,始建于明永乐十八年(1420年),初名“大祈殿”,原为矩形大殿,嘉靖二十四年(1545年)改为三重顶圆殿,殿顶覆盖上青、中黄、下绿三色琉璃寓意天、地、万物。清乾隆十六年(17...

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈年殿 (1261)

J: Beijing Temple of Heaven - qiniandian-2008

por jacky cheng, 290 metros de distancia

the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest:Constructed in the bright Yunglo 18 years (in 1420), initially th...

Beijing Temple of Heaven - qiniandian-2008

Este panorama fue tomado en Beijing

Esta es una vista general de Beijing

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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