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Romanov – Outstanding Figures of Epochs
The portraits of this genre emphasized the human dignity, majesty, solemnity, and of course the similarity, but there was not any psychological content in the painting.
There are many historical researches and biographical novels devoted to the rulers, but portraits also can say a lot about the personality of the ruler.
Estonia was ruled by the Russian Tsars up to the year 1917. Therefore there are very many portraits of the members of the Royal Family in the Estonian museums.
And the most important thing is that they have survived to the present day. May be there are even more portraits of the Romanov Family in the Estonian museums than in the Russian museums.
Johann Köhler – a kind of phenomenon – was the first Estonian professional painter, who created about 30 portraits of Alexander II, Alexander III and Nicholas II, their wives and other attendants.
Nowadays the portraits of the Romanov Family members have been exhibited again...
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.