The Izaak Synagogue, formally named the Isaak Jakubowicz Synagogue, and also called the Isaac synagogue, is a synagogue built in 1644 in the historic Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland. The synagogue is named for the donor, Izaak Jakubowicz (d. 1673) who was also called Isaac the Rich and who was banker to King Wladislaw IV. The synagogue was designed by Francesco Olivierri, an Italian working in Poland in that era. Jakubowicz is buried in the Remuh Cemetery. Variants of the name include Ayzik , Izaak, and Isaac. Izaak is the standard Polish spelling. Jakubowicz is Polish for "Son of Jacob."
High Synagogue was a Orthodox Judaism synagogue in Kazimierz, Kraków, Poland. It was called the "high...
Old Synagogue is an Orthodox Judaism synagogue in Kazimierz, Kraków, Poland. It is the oldest existin...
Reform Jewish synagogue in Kraków, Poland, in the Kazimierz district, Miodowa Street 24Wikipedia
Szeroka street, once the central square of the Kazimierz Jewish Town, the capital of Poland’s Jews fr...
The imposing three-nave church was erected in the 14th century. Its impressive interior is a mixture ...
The Polish flags with black banner placed on the cashier building of this museum, but also on all bus...
See the website of this museum. Photo's taken on March 6, 2012.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.