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Ruínas da Antiga Catedral de São Paulo 澳門八景-大三巴牌坊
China

大三巴牌坊是位於聖保祿山[5]的天主之母教堂(A lgreja da Madre de Deus)前壁。與大炮台及兩者之間的前聖保祿學院為一整體。而「三巴」這個名字是來自於「聖保祿」的葡萄牙文(São Paulo),而「大」是指最大的教堂,故「大三巴」是指「最大的教堂」[2]。聖堂創建於1580年,在1595年和1601年先後兩次失火焚毀。教堂第三次修建由義大利籍耶穌會會士斯皮諾拉神父設計,並於1602年奠基,1635年建成,歷時33年,是當時遠東最大的天主教石建教堂[6]。1762年,葡萄牙政府下令沒收耶穌會財產,天主之母教堂先後被改作軍官宿舍、兵營。[7]1835年1月,教堂起火,最後剩下教堂的前壁。由於教堂前壁形似中國的傳統牌坊,故本地人便稱之為「大三巴牌坊」[4]。1990年代初,政府曾對聖保祿教堂的遺址進行考古調查及修復工作,並發現了當時教堂背後的建築遺址及埋葬教士的墓地。及後在1996年,政府在該遺址建成了天主教藝術博物館與墓室,展出不少澳門教會的珍貴文物[8];同時,也在大三巴牌坊的背部安裝了鐵架樓梯,以供遊人參觀,可是樓梯的鐵架插了在牌坊的結構之內,此舉引來一些文物專家的不滿。在回歸前的澳葡政府已欲將牌坊申報為世界文化遺產,但由於政治及技術因素而未能成功[9]。2005年,中國政府成功向聯合國教科文組織申報世界文化遺產,大三巴牌坊成為澳門歷史城區的一部份[4]。

Copyright: Njohn
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 6570x3285
Chargée: 18/04/2013
Mis à jour: 18/08/2014
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Tags: ruínas da antiga catedral de são paulo; 澳門八景; 大三巴牌坊; 聖保祿大教堂遺址
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