Arka Pana Church
A cross commemorating the death of B. Włosik shot by state security during the demonstration of 13th October, 1982 in the centre of the square. The Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary Queen of Poland, so - called Arka Pana (Church of the Lord's Ark) was built in the years 1967 - 1977 following the design by W. Pietrzyk. It was the first new church to be constructed in Nowa Huta. Abundant with symbols, the building was inspired by the chapel in Ronchamp and resembles a boat with mast in the form of the cross. It has a two-level interior; at its upper level there is a marble altar in the shape of an open hand, a tabernacle symbolizing the universe, and a highly expressive Crucified Christ by B. Chromy on the wall. The stations of the Way of the Cross, designed by M. Lipiński, 1980 - 1983, are highly allegorical: they make reference to the latest history of Poland. The bottom level includes a number of chapels, including the Chapel of Conciliation, with sculptures by A. Rząsa. (from http://www.krakow.pl/en/turystyka/content.php?id=trasy/trasa_nowohucka/trasa.html)
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Part of the outside display of the Polish Aviation Museum. Photo's taken on may 25, 2011.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.