Brandenburger Tor Berlin 6851
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Panoramic photo by dieter kik EXPERT MAESTRO Taken 13:14, 10/08/2010 - Views loading...

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Brandenburger Tor Berlin 6851

The World > Europe > Germany > Berlin

Tags: history, building

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http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porte_de_Brandebourg

La porte de Brandebourg (Brandenburger Tor en allemand) se situe à l'entrée ouest de l'ancien Berlin et est un symbole de la ville, mais fut pendant presque trois décennies le symbole de la division de la ville : le monument faisait partie intégrante du mur de Berlin. Elle fut érigée par Carl Gotthard Langhans (1732-1808) pour le roi de Prusse Frédéric-Guillaume II (1744-1797). Elle fut construite de 1788 à 1791 en style néoclassique. Elle rappelle le Propylée de l'Acropole d'Athènes.
La porte termine l'avenue Unter den Linden et remplace une porte précédente qui y avait été construite en 1734. Elle fait 26 mètres de haut, 65,5 mètres de large et a une profondeur de 11 mètres. Elle comprend cinq passages et deux maisonnettes. Jusqu'à ce que le Kaiser fût déposé, celui-ci était le seul à pouvoir passer avec son véhicule sous le passage central.
En 1793, elle est couronnée du quadrige de Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850) figurant la déesse de la Victoire sur un char tiré par quatre chevaux. Cette statue a été réalisée en cuivre. En 1806, elle est emportée par Napoléon qui veut l'installer à Paris. Après la chute du Premier Empire, le quadrige retourne à Berlin, où il est restauré et agrémenté d'un nouveau symbole de pouvoir (l'aigle prussien). Le quadrige a retrouvé, après bien des débats, son aigle et sa croix de fer, attributs guerriers dessinés par Karl Friedrich Schinkel à la demande du roi Frédéric-Guillaume III.
Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, on fit poser une copie en plâtre. En effet, lors de la bataille de Berlin, des soldats allemands s'étaient réfugiés derrière le quadrige d'où ils tiraient et la statue fut gravement endommagée. Seuls deux chevaux échappèrent à l'attaque. Le 21 septembre 1956, le magistrat de la ville de Berlin décida de reconstruire l'unique ancienne porte de la ville encore debout. La rénovation fut terminée le 14 décembre 1957.
À la partition de la ville, la porte de Brandebourg se situe dans la Zone est. Avec la construction du mur de Berlin, le 13 août 1961, celle-ci se retrouve au milieu du No Man's Land gardé par les soldats de RDA et ne peut donc plus être traversée ni à l'est ni à l'ouest1. Tandis que la vue sur l'édifice à partir de Unter den Linden (secteur Est) n'était entravée par aucun dispositif de sécurité (sauf des barrières), celle à partir du secteur Ouest (Straße des 17. Juni) était gâchée par le mur de béton d'environ 3 mètres de hauteur qui cachait la base du monument aux Berlinois de l'ouest. Lors de leurs venues en visite officielle à Berlin-Ouest, les dirigeants occidentaux (tel que le président Kennedy en juin 1963) avaient pris l'habitude de prononcer régulièrement des discours devant la porte. C'est pourquoi, les autorités de la RDA faisaient alors installer des tentures (souvent des drapeaux de l'État est-allemand ou des étoffes rouges) entre les piliers du monument, afin d'en obstruer la vue aux habitants de Berlin-Est éventuellement trop curieux.
Durant la séparation, l'aigle qui trônait au-dessus du quadrige en haut de la porte fut retiré. Il retrouva sa place lors de la réunification.
Tous les événements importants de l'histoire de Berlin sont liés à la porte de Brandebourg comme symbole de la ville, mais aussi de l'État. Ainsi, c'est sous la pression de plus de 100 000 personnes que vingt-huit ans après sa construction, le mur fut enfin rouvert au niveau de la porte le 22 décembre 1989.
La porte de Brandebourg est représentée sur les pièces allemandes de 10, 20 et 50 centimes d'euro comme symbole de l'unité retrouvée.
Le 3 octobre 2002, la porte de Brandebourg a été enfin dévoilée lors de joyeuses festivités après vingt-deux mois de rénovation. Auparavant, elle avait été longtemps négligée et elle était régulièrement endommagée pendant les festivités du Nouvel an où de nombreuses personnes y montaient.

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This panorama was taken in Berlin

This is an overview of Berlin

Overview and History

Okay, where did it all start? Berlin is the capital city of Germany, with a population of around 3.5 million people.

Since the thirteenth century Berlin has served as the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. (Thank you wikipedia)

During World War Two Berlin was heavily bombed, and at the end of the war the city was divided into East Berlin, controlled by Russia, and West Berlin which was controlled by the Allied forces (U.S., France, Britain).

Cold War tensions led to the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, and its symbolic destruction in 1989 heralded the reunification of Germany and the opening to a new renaissance in the city.

Getting There

Well I'm glad you asked. Here's some info on the three available airports servicing Berlin.

The airport is connected with busses to get to the metro system .

Being that Berlin sports the largest train station in Europe, let's have a look! Here's the main station Hauptbahnhof for lunch, buying new sneakers or international rail service!

Transportation

The metro in Berlin is like when Homer Simpson wakes up in the middle of the night and says,"Yes honey I'd love some pork chops right now." Except you actually get the pork chops.

There's basically a ring of metro lines making a loop around the city, with spokes going into and out of the center from the perimeter. It is fast, easy to understand on your first visit, clean and cheap.

A story here will illustrate nicely. Erin lost her passport. Nevermind who Erin is. As we were on our way to the airport, with the clock ticking down from forty-five minutes until departure, I casually asked,"Hey, you have your passport right?" I don't know, it just popped into my head to say that.

Two seconds later we were on a metro platform tearing open both of our luggage bags cursing, and not finding any passport. And she still had that whole box of plates for her cousin's wedding present to pick up from a locker in the train station, lord help us all! Pass the ammunition. I recoiled from visions of deadly disaster.

We came up with a plan where she'd keep going to the airport and searching her purse again on the way, and I'd take a train back the opposite direction and look for the passport in the flat where we'd couchsurfed.

So we both rode around on trains for an hour, sweating and texting like mad fiends, and in the end I found it on the floor of our friend's flat. It was stashed for some ungodly reason inside an empty cardboard contact lens box all by itself in the stark middle of the floor. I made it back to the airport in time to hand it to her in line at the customs counter.

Miraculous! We jumped for joy and cried hot and salty tears of thanks to the Berlin Metro. What's it called again? U-bahn. So nice. If I was a baby train I would want to be born in Berlin.

Click here if you just need somewhere to click for fulfillment, or if you want to print out the Berlin metro map for your bathroom wall, home altar to the gods, target practice etc.

People and Culture

Berlin! Berlin! Berlin! Go there right now, and if you're under forty you will consider not leaving. There are all kinds of people here and great late night food options.

Outside the train stations there are bike racks filled up with dozens of bikes, a thicket of bikes, like a breeding ground of bikes waiting to be plucked ripe and ridden on Berlin's flat smooth paths. I mean they are serious about biking here, you will be fined 100 EUR for riding at night without lights, there's even a white stripe down the no-pedestrians bike lane.. it's no joke! Here's more on Berlin biking.

I wasn't there for very long but it did seem that a lot of people were speaking German... okay seriously Berlin is a tech-ish city with a weird economy right now. It's cheap to live there but hard to find a job, especially for non-EU people.

These are the rumors: Everybody's an artist, the techno will mash your head into pixels seven nights a week, moving to Berlin is the 1920's Paris of the new millenium, etc. I don't know. Go see for yourself and let me know what happened later.

For local info on events and "stuff that doesn't suck", grab an issue of Provokator, a Berlin-Prague magazine on venues and all things of interest which occur in them.

Things to do & Recommendations

First of all, run and don't walk to Tresor for hard techno inside a hard building with bass cabinets that will punch your friggin' chest cavity out. Tresor is a legendary record label now with a re-opened club to represent their artists and sound. bla bla bla just go there and put up the pics on facebook.

Tacheles is recommendation #2 for you. Overtake an abandoned shopping mall building in a previous war zone, renovate it into artists' studios and fill up the courtyard with junk sculpture and you can have your very own Tachales. Please forgive this micro-condensed bat-brained attempt at describing something so loving, cool, open, amazing, awesome and resurrecting of the spirit of Art. Not Art. Art that explodes "Art". ok?

Number Three, take a bike tour with Fat Tire Bikes. It's worth it for the history alone, and the route and views add grit to the gravy. What does that mean? It means Berlin has a dark vibe overall, it's a very heavy place for anyone with psychic sensitivity and when you visit you will see for yourself. A lot of people died here during World War Two and the repercussions linger.

That is not a negative review, by the way. Berlin is bursting with life and art, music food people and everything cool. The setting on which it is built seems like motivation for these to expand more fully, not any sort of detractor from them. Just so that's said. Take a walk around Kreuzberg to see what's happening in the scene.

Text by Steve Smith.

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