Kazimierz Dolny is a town in Puławy Poviat, Lubelskie Voivodeship (Province). The town is located on the Vistula River, in the western part of Płaskowyż Nałęczowski.
The beginnings of Kazimierz Dolny date back to the 11th century. Originally, the settlement located on one of the hills was called Wietrzna Góra and belonged to the St. Benedict's Abbey. In 1181, King Casimir the Just gave the settlement to the Norbertanki Convent, who lived in Zwierzyniec located near Kraków and who changed the name of the settlement to Kazimierz (from the name of Casimir - in Polish Kazimierz).
The settlement was established on the ford of the River Vistula and thus the customs collected were used to develop the town. Soon, at the beginning of the 14th century, after Kazimierz again became a royal property, Casimir the Great granted it town rights.
The town developed in the second half of the 16th century and was connected with the grain trade, which was transported to Gdańsk by the Vistula River. Kazimierz flourished in the first half of the 17th century and during that time the most important buildings were erected in the town.
The Golden Age of Kazimiesz ended with the burning of the town and the castle by the Swedish army in February 1656. Army marches and the plague which raged in the town contributed to the town's decline.
At the end of the 19th century Kazimierz Dolny became a health resort. Soon, numerous villas and guest houses were built mainly for holiday makers from Lublin and Warsaw in the nearby ravines.
After the war, in 1923, a professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw - Tadeusz Pruszkowski - brought here his students to paint the town. The tourist followed the artists who fell in love with the town. Despite the heavy damages of the Second World War, the town was rebuilt mainly thanks to the architect Karol Siciński. Since then, the artists have been painting in the Kazimierz and art became a trademark of the town.
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