Dubovac is a small medieval fortress in Croatia, located on an artificial hill, overlooking the city of Karlovac. Square tower was probably built during the 13th century.
Throughout the centuries the owners of the fortress were various noble families. During the 16th century the fortress was besieged by Turks on several occasions, but never conquered. The last attack occurred in 1578 just before the beginning of the construction of Karlovac, a town-fortress.
In 1579 Dubovac was purchased for the 'Frontier architectural commission' and the future military command of the Karlovac fortress. In 18th century it was converted into a military depot. During the French occupation, 1809-1813, the fortress was reconstructed by general Vianney for residential purposes, and in 1837 it was purchased by the Austrian general Laval Nugent.
Finaly in 1896 Dubovac was bought by the city of Karlovac with intention to restore it. The restoration was repeatedly interrupted and finally finished in 1961. Today, the fortress is turned into an restaurant.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.