Reichsbrücke (Empire Bridge)
The Reichsbrücke (German for Empire Bridge) is Vienna's most famous bridge, linking Mexicoplatz in Leopoldstadt with the Donauinsel in Donaustadt on the other side of the Danube. It lies on an important axis leading from the city centre at Stephansplatz, through Praterstern, and on to Kagran in the north-east. The bridge carries six lanes of traffic, used by 50,000 vehicles daily, U-Bahn tracks, two footpaths and two cyclepaths.
History of the Reichsbrücke
The first bridge to be built on the site of the current Reichsbrücke was constructed in 1872–1876 under the name Kronprinz-Rudolph-Brücke (Crown Prince Rudolf Bridge), before the regulation of the Danube in Vienna. A truss of iron girders spanned the main river, with vaulted bridges crossing the flood plains on either side. It was formally opened on 21 August 1876, and the name was changed to Reichsbrücke in 1919 after Austria became a republic.
View from the left bank of the Danube, looking over the Reichsbrücke towards the city centre. An entrance to the Vienna U-Bahn (U1) is visible in the foreground. As a measure to reduce the level of unemployment in the 1930s, a suspension bridge was planned to take the place of the old Reichsbrücke. The technical plans were drawn up by the architects Siegfried Theiß and Hans Jaksch, with artistic control being given to Clemens Holzmeister. The pillars of the old bridge were extended downstream and the structure was shifted by 26 m in less than seven hours. The new bridge could thus be built on the line of the old bridge without long-lasting disruptions to traffic. This suspension bridge, built between 1934 and 1937, carried four lanes of traffic, two tram lines and footpaths on both sides. The bridges over the flood plains were also expanded. The new bridge was opened on 10 October 1937 by Cardinal Innitzer and Bundespräsident Wilhelm Miklas.
During the Second World War, the Reichsbrücke was the only one of Vienna's bridges over the Danube not to suffer serious damage. The Soviet troops attacking the city were in time to prevent the bridge being destroyed by the defending Wehrmacht, and as a result, the bridge was re-named Brücke der Roten Armee (Red Army Bridge) for a while. The bridge was renovated between 1948 and 1952. In 1948, the bridge was used as a location in the film The Third Man.
The Reichsbrücke collapse
On Sunday 1 August 1976, shortly before 05:00, the bridge collapsed[why?], killing one person. One lorry was destroyed and several ships damaged. The driver of an empty city bus was able to save himself, and his bus was salvaged and continued to be used until 1989; it now resides in Vienna's tramway museum (Straßenbahnmuseum). Shipping was diverted through the Donaukanal. Two supplementary bridges were hurriedly raised to carry the traffic and the trams, and were in use for four years.
Driving on the Reichsbrücke towards the city centre An international competition was launched for the design of the new bridge, and was won by the "Johann Nestroy" project. Construction began in 1978, and the bridge was formally opened on 8 November 1980 by city councillor Heinz Nittel, under the name Johann-Nestroy-Brücke, a name which has not caught on.
The Viennese U-Bahn network was routed over the Reichsbrücke for the first time on 3 September 1982, after extensive testing.
In 2003, the periphery of the bridge was overhauled, together with the lighting, and the footpaths and cyclepaths were widened. At the same time, the width of lanes was increased by reducing the width of the central reservation and removing the narrow emergency sidewalks.
A German passenger ship rammed one pillar of the Reichsbrücke in 2004, severely injuring several people. The bridge was undamaged by the accident.
On Saturday 9 July 2005, the 25th anniversary of the building of the Reichsbrücke was celebrated, and the restoration was finished. The tarmac was treated with a special noise-absorbing layer, and three new night bus stops were built.
The bridge contains the Donauinsel station of the Vienna U-Bahn.
The wharf beside the Reichsbrücke will be the site of a tourist attraction based on the two boats Niederösterreich and Oberst Brecht. These were the Austrian Army's last patrol ships on the Danube, and the successors of the KuK Kriegsmarine .
New Landmark for the cityThe DC Towers designed by Dominique Perrault leave a distinctive mark on Vie...
Copa Cagrana - Donaucity, spring
Overview and History
The history of Vienna is synonymous with that of Europe's biggest empire, so hang on to your weiner schnitzel.
Vienna was named "Vindomina" by Celtic tribesmen around 500 B.C. The Romans called it "Vindobona", which means "good wine," and some remains from the Roman garrison there can be found at Hoher Market. Since it was on the outskirts of the Roman Empire, it suffered much chaos and destruction during Volkerwanderung (AKA "let's pillage").
Throughout the later Middle Ages Vienna lived under the rule of the Babenberg family. They steadfastly warded off those persistent Mongolian raiders who keep popping up just when you least expect them.
During the third great Crusade (1192 A.D), Richard the Lionhearted was captured near Vienna and held for a ransom most foul which amounted to eleven tons of silver! This tidy sum was collected from England and used for the creation of a mint and city walls, major steps in Vienna's ascension to proper city status.
Good old kidnapping, who can get enough of it? You can still see remains of these city walls in the metro stop at Stubentor.
1278 A.D. marked the beginning of Hapsburg rule over the Austrian lands, snatched from the clutches of Bohemian King Otokar II. This reign would last almost seven centuries and grow to be Europe's largest empire.
Vienna twice defended against Ottoman attackers in the 16th and 17th centuries. As the story goes, the Viennese strained coffee technique traces its roots back to these Turks, who left sacks of coffee beans in the wake of their hasty retreat.
Emperor Josef II granted freedom of religious expression in 1781, immediately attracting the likes of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. These composers created masterpieces of western music in service of the blossoming Viennese opera houses and concert halls.
Vienna officially became capital of the Austrian Empire in 1804, of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after 1867, and capital of First Austrian Republic after WWI. The Hapsburg dynasty ended in 1918 with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which launched WWI.
Between the two World Wars, Austria experienced a revolution (the February Uprising) and autocratic government. Austria was captured by Germany and then Russia during WWII, but emerged as a sovereign nation again at the end of the war. However, it remained a divided and occupied city for another ten years, a period when international espionage cloaked more than a dagger or two within its four bristling regions.
In recent history Vienna has become like a second capital of Europe after Brussels. In the 1970's Vienna built the Vienna International Center, a complex to house one of the four United Nations offices. Along with the UN, this complex houses OPEC headquarters, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Test Ban Organization, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Did you know that OSCE is the world's largest intergovernmental organization?
I wonder what Sigmund Freud would say?
Vienna has a smooth, well-built public transportation system. Like Prague, the city layout is organized by numbered districts which begin in the center and radiate outwards.
You can get around here on buses, trams, trains and the underground metro. Don't forget to stamp your ticket in the blue machine!
People and Culture
Well, the border guards still check passports even though Austria is part of the "borderless" Schengen zone. In other words, Austria is a lot more formal than neighboring Slovakia and Czech Republic. Be advised.
Food to sniff around for:
wiener schnitzel -- pounded flat veal, breaded and sauteed in clarified butter.
Eat it with dumplings, chase it with apple strudel, remember it over your palatschinken the next morning (these are like crepes).
And of course, about every forty-five minutes you should be visiting a cafe for another magic coffee. Austrian caffeine addiction is legendary.
Vienna is also one of the world's few capital cities which still has its own vineyards. Go for a Riesling tasting next time you're in town.
Things to do & Recommendations
First off, location is everything. You can get to Vienna by bicycle on the greenway bike path, how cool!
Opera, baby! We didn't really get into detail, but Vienna's opera houses and theaters are some of the best in all of Europe. Visit the Burgtheater, Volkstheater Wien and Theater in der Josefstadt, at the very least.
Across the Danube you should take a stroll through the Karmeliter district, which has a cool art scene and lots of bars. You know how art makes you thirsty.
For late night munchers, head to the area around Naschmarkt, maybe Cafe Drechsler or Grafin vom Naschmarkt, serving traditional Austrian chow for longer than anyone can remember.
If that's not enough, you can throw pretzels in the world's oldest zoo, or maybe even at the Vienna boy's choir, but not in any of the 100+ art museums.
And of course we are skipping all the obvious stuff such as Maria Theresien Platz, the residences of Beethoven, Mozart's grave... the list goes on. Seven centuries of royalty will accumulate quite a bit of architecture and noteworthy collections. Have fun!
Text by Steve Smith.