Ethno park Tulba - Pozarevac
(translated with Google Translate, sorry for errors)
The idea to form in Pozarevac folk architecture museum came from the experts of the Museum back in 1963. when the study was done and the first conception of the setting. The feasibility study has highlighted the importance of Požarevac end, or current Branicevo region, which includes landscape units with distinct characteristics and ethnographic objects preserved folk architecture, such as Homolje they hiss and Mlava. It points to the need for the traditional values of folk architecture displayed in one place and thus saved from ruin and destruction that inevitably comes with the development of culture of living in the countryside. As an advantageous position for the formation of ethno Pozarevac Park, indicated the proximity of Iron Gate Highway and its importance for tourism development, which would have a role and the Museum of folk architecture. The selected location on the hill Tulba, part hair Sopot, 1 km away from the center, due to favorable terrain, which corresponds to the parent from which the objects. The first building, a four-house with a porch from the village Melnice, set in 1971. year. In the next 11 years raised a total of eight facilities built by the people: 2 houses (two-piece and a four), basket, barn, stables with kazanxinicom, barn and well. All buildings are wooden structures and traditional architecture are hilly and mountainous areas, but barns of the Morava. Most buildings in the area of the Mlava from the village Melnice 4-one (goal) of the laces. One building (barn) from adjacent areas Zviždi. They are set according to the conception of which was supposed to be in the form of two ethno park garden, one of the area and one from Mlava Pomoravlje with typical objects that represent the tradition built by the people of this region.
Since 1985. by 2006. year, ethno park was not in operation. In the meantime, they destroyed 4 buildings: barns with kazandžinicom, basket and a well. This year, three buildings and is partially protected fence set potpletenog suitors, so that the ambient setting had become a museum of folk architecture.
Type and design of buildings
1st Wooden House (durungara) from the village Melnice, Mlava area, size 7.5 x 4.75 m. It was built circa 1860. year. The house has two divisions: home (kljet) and a room. It is set on the basis of sandstone rock netesanog connected mud mortar, with a height of 0.50 m to 1.60 m with a basement room below the masonry above the earth. This type of home is known as the steel house, a typical structural element of mountain areas. The walls are made of oak piles užljebljenih the vertical pillars that were buried in the logs on the basis set. Piles at the corners "ućertene" except on the corner by the door where the furrowed into a pillar. The wall between the house and rooms of the adobe and wattle. Četvorovodan roof is covered in tiles. Pillar that holds the beam tavnjaču is located along the wall of the house, opposite the entrance. Since the mid-column to beam the bowsprit (stalpjeće), which serves for hanging squeezes and other kitchen items. The ceiling of the šošavca (šovjec) - each užljebljenih boards. The room is plastered with mud and painted. The floor was of packed earth. The house has an open fireplace with a wall, where in the room, on the other side, there was built of kiln. The heater was destroyed and when registering the object on the ground, and chimneys (goal), which was rebuilt with brick arches. The entrance door is made of planks with a wooden handle and keyhole (manus) in the middle of the outside. The door between the house and rooms are full, and the basement of the pile. The room has two windows of size 40 x 40 cm, on the side and front. The windows are two crossed metal rods (formerly Kolenike wooden) and wooden shutter that is moved by the furrowed frame. The inventory of the house left of the entrance door was nailed lumber - bench, in a room below the attic is a long plank - raf, for the disposal of cases.
The ethno park is set 1982nd year, as part of the garden in the western part of the Mlava environmental entities ethno park, the doors facing east.
The interior of the house is equipped with furniture, which are sometimes used. This house was given for temporary use as a painting studio Celebrate Dmitrović from Pozarevac.
2nd Wooden House (durungara) from the village Melnice, Mlava area, size 8.60 x 8 m. It was built in 1880. year. Belongs to the type of house-developed log. There are four rooms: a house, large and small room and storage. Communication is circular. The house is a patio, which is based on two pillars profiled (Cindra) under the same roof, fence boards and užljebljenih Filloreta doors. The porch is accessed through the stone steps. It was built on the Celica with a basement beneath both rooms. The foundation stone of sandstone, with a height of 0.50 and 1.70 m. The walls are made of oak piles (Brnja) užljebljenih the wooden structure. Planks or durunge are connected to the corners cert, and the gate on the side of the porch were furrowed into a pillar. The roof is četvorovodan, covered with tiles. The ceiling of the šošavca, a floor made of packed earth. The rooms are plastered with mud and whitewashed. The house has an open fireplace set with a partition wall of the room in which, on the opposite side, is built of kiln. The chimney is built of bows and ends. The door of the pile with a wooden lock. In a large room, two double glazed windows, on the wider side, and the small one. The house has no windows, while the left is a slot with a movable shutter.
Is set as the first building in the park ethno 1971st year on the east side door facing west, with nice interior. The interior has been completely renovated: the house is a waterwheel, a wooden cupboard to hold dishes, Sinija with tripod, for holding various dishes and preparing food items for the hearth (Sadžak, Crepulja, Vršnik, coal shovel, chains, cauldron, to spit balls) in a room twin beds, wooden chairs, table clothes and containers. In a small room set up a loom for weaving, yarn preparation tools and a small exhibition copy.
3rd Barn in the village Lučice area Morava. Built around the 1864th year. Is set to 8 wooden davits. The walls are filled with half timbered construction izžljebljenim boards. Četvorovodan roof is covered in tiles. The ceiling of the šošavca, and under the boards. In front of the porch under the same roof, which holds the profiled column. It has wooden escalators. Inside, the right of the entrance has three partitions (sections) to accommodate a variety of grains. Dimensions 5.27 x 4.33 base m, 2.1 x trem 1.26 m, height 1.94 m.
Set in 1975. year, as an object of the Morava region, probably as part of a planned garden in this area, but he is lonely. It is located right of the big house.
Ethnological objects in the evaluation of ethno park
Objects placed in the park on ethno Tulbi are typical forms of folk architecture area of origin. Melnica village, from which they are transferred home, located in Mlava. This is the mountain scenery, abundant forest cover, which is rich material, which served as the basic structural element in the construction of houses and commercial properties. Objects from one area and from the same period of construction give the most appropriate picture of folk architecture in a particular time and place. The sources from the beginning of this century, it is mentioned that the log house or in dorungara Mlava older type and it is partly inherited and discharge structures bondručne house filled with wicker, čatmom, and then adobe. During the construction of houses set in ethno park indicates that in the second half of the nineteenth century still existed in the villages of log cabins that were located outside the major communications, such as Melnica.
By placing the small and large houses in ethno park is clearly marked path of development houses in the spatial and functional terms. Two-piece house is an older form, and was most prevalent in this area. Both houses are due to terrain, but experienced a transitional phase in the vertical sense, gotten a basement room below. By adding other premises (in this case another room and storage) and porch, log cabin homes in the area Mlava experienced their full form. Porch in addition to its utilitarian and aesthetic functions have a role. It is an element of formal composition that gives a distinctive stamp of its external appearance. Thus the balance between function, structure and shape of the house came fully into play. The spatial development of the affected houses are primarily social and economic factors or economic status and family structure. Home park set in the ethnic confirm that the bearer of progress in the evolution of residential building built by the people.
Unlike houses, which is subject to change various factors that affect its function, structure and layout, the longest commercial buildings retain the old system of building. This is the case with the barn built of piles of the Morava, which kept the older form in spite of the Morava, at the time, the building was under construction in the more developed. Even today in the field can meet commercial buildings constructed of piles, while log cabin homes completely gone. This means that the economic structures that satisfy the function and there was no need for a different construction solutions.
The formation of these environmental entities, have been preserved from decay and the complete disappearance of old buildings built by the people who are no longer on the field, such as home chalets. Today, a rarity in the end Branicevo see some of the buildings of the old rural architecture. They are dislodged by large, modern houses were built, usually a combination of different styles, conveyed mainly by foreign, European countries, where many people find temporary work. Additional facilities are also built of bricks and blocks.
In the ethno park, in one place, old buildings situated village architecture so that it can be said that this unit meets the principles of museum exhibition in the open air. Its aim is that the public and scientists familiar with the values of rural architecture of an area, which is in some way, and the identity of the people who inhabit, as it is formed spontaneously under the influence of the environment and the circumstances in which they lived with a deep sense of harmony and shape, and fit the needs of a man.
Photo: Virtuelne ture
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