Gates of Dawn
The Gate of Dawn (Ausros Vartai) in Vilnius, constructed at the beginning of the 16th century, is one of nine gates that existed at that time in the city’s defensive walls. In medieval Vilnius there was a custom of placing holy pictures over the gate in tower recesses. The picture of the Madonna without the Infant Jesus, having a sad countenance, slightly bowed head, and crossed arms, was placed on the gate which was considered to be the most representative, because official visitors were welcome there. This picture did not attract much attention, as it was in the recess behind shutters, which protected it against the rain and snow. The situation changed in 1626 when the Barefoot Carmelites order was established near the Gate of Dawn. One of the monks in the Gate of Dawn constructed a wooden chapel with stairs for the Madonna picture, where the inhabitants of Vilnius started gathering for prayers. In that chapel, with the intercession of the Mother of God, the inhabitants of Vilnius for generations have pleaded for special graces for themselves and their family and friends.
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Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.