Good Friday at Dubrovnik Cathedral anno 2013.
The Assumption Cathedral (Croatian: Katedrala Velike Gospe, Katedrala Marijina Uznesenja) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It is the seat of the Diocese of Dubrovnik.
The cathedral was built on the site of several former cathedrals, including 6th, 10th and 11th century buildings, and their 12th century successor in the Romanesque style, which was largely destroyed in the earthquake of 1667. The Senate of Dubrovnik appealed to the architect Andrea Bufalini who sent a model for the new church. Several other Italian architects including Francesco Cortese (present from 1669 until his death in 1670), Paolo Andreotti (present 1671-1674), Pier Antonio Bazzi (present 1677-78), and Tommaso Maria Napoli of Palermo (present 1689 - 1700), all working with local and imported stonemasons, completed the Cathedral over the next three decades. Napoli made several crucial changes to the original plans including the use of a cross vault and the opening of large thermal windows at the upper level. This gives the whole interior a lighter and brighter feel. The style of the Cathedral is in keeping with the esthetics of Roman Baroque architecture as practiced by Bernini, Carlo Fontana and their 17th century contemporaries. The building features three high naves, three apses and a grand Baroque dome. The main altar holds a polyptych by Titian, portraying a version of the Assumption of the Virgin. This painting probably dates from 1552; the side altars hold paintings of later centuries.
The Cathedral treasury (Riznica Katedrale) holds 200 reliquaries holding relics from the 11th to 18th centuries; chiefly, the gold-plated arm, leg and skull of Saint Blaise and a relic of the True Cross.
The cathedral was damaged by at least one shell during the Siege of Dubrovnik. The damage has since been repaired.
Hand held with plum bob 4 frames Samyang 8mm Nikon d700
Made with Nikon d700, 14-25, prototype panohead Nadir Samurai (first version)
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.