Japanese Garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac
Japanese Garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac in Belgrade, lives in a landscape setting concert silence
Japanese tradition of the construction of gardens and gardening has been developed over a thousand years, and it svojevrsan term culture of the Far East. Japanese garden does not belong to the field of horticulture. For its comprehensive view is necessary to bear in mind the aspects of art, science, history, engineering, philosophy. Japanese Garden in life play a very important role and they are a reflection of their attitude towards nature and the awareness that man is part of nature, and stone, plant, animal, with which man should live in harmony.
The main purpose of a garden is to bring nature and serenity to the closest living environment, as opposed to accelerated and crowded everyday. However, the Japanese garden is nature in its original form, but it is still nature transformed by man.
Namely, when the city of gardens, nature is inspiration and the context of her landscapes are selected as models that are then used in a new context as elements of composition of the garden.
Depending on the need to satisfy, there are several types of gardens: for walking (style applications) - a garden whose main feature is the path that leads from one point to another with whom one may consider the various scenes, for meditation, mostly with civil engineering in Soin style - in which the garden is seen from the central building, with an emphasis on creating carefully composed scenes reminiscent of the picture and can be considered long, for fun - the style of Funa Asobi (boat to enjoy) - focused around an oval pool that the eunuchs driving a boat for pleasure, style Kaiju (much pleasure) - in which the various gardens, mostly tea, constructed around a central pond, and thus show remarkable changes of scenes.
There are different variations on these styles.
There are "wet garden" and "Green Garden" - by the water and greenery, but there are also completely dry gardens such as the known type of kare sansui - "a garden without trees" or "dry landscape" and it is a Zen garden that is typically associated with the Zen temples and is intended for meditation.
The basic elements used to construct a Japanese garden are: stone, soil, water, plants and trees. With these elements go to the building such as for example tea huts, gates and fences in the form of ditches, hedges or walls, and eventual construction of artificial hills.
Japanese garden is based on a combination of these elements and their adaptation of a given environment. The technique šakej or "borrowed landscape", which seeks to incorporate the surrounding landscape perspective of the garden. For example, if you are in the distance a mountain, sea or plain real perspective in the garden that will allow these scenes are extended as part of the garden. The art of building a Japanese garden is the art of arranging or grouping of stones that make the skeleton of the garden. Stone is a sacred element in Japan and has a different symbolic meaning. Grouping of stones is not arbitrary or not it's some "freestyle", but using different ancient scriptures which presents principles and techniques of grouping of stones and other elements of the garden.
The symbolic beauty of the garden comes from the expression šintoističkih beliefs - the habitation of the gods in unusual places and objects in nature, and this may be a special stone, a beautiful waterfall, a tree that has long resisted time or for example, Mount Fuji. Later, over time, have been synthesized and elements that express the Taoist and Buddhist tradition. So they have historically appeared first type of "Garden of Eden" during the domination of a Buddhist sect, "Pure Land" (Hejan period of 794 - 1185) who looked, according to the performances from the file, as one of the Buddhist paradises - with a lake full of lotus flowers and a bridge that leads to the central islands, then the Zen garden that appears in the 12th century and has a distinctive style with abstract symbolism dry landscape and simple materials, and at the end of tea gardens appear with tea masters who are devising a special ritual - tea ceremony, in the 16th century. Continental influence the culture of China and Korea to the culture of Japan is reflected in the gardens and bridges in the Chinese style and stone sources. In the Edo period (1603-1868) made a synthesis of all previous cultural influences and forms.
Modern Japanese gardens are always a combination of these elements in a given environment in a particular cultural context. They are now found in urban areas and within public parks, botanical garden, shopping, restaurants, office buildings, department stores, private homes, can be found sometimes in the tops of apartment buildings on a relatively small area.
Our Japanese garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac is a variation of the type of garden for walking and watching the changing scenes which are provided from different positions along the tracks that were made about the elements of lakes and streams. In other words, it is a garden for a walk with a lake and a stream, because there are variants of the garden for a walk only with the lake.
Japanese garden is asymmetric and provides a typical configuration of the terrain and landscape on several levels, which can hardly be seen at a glance. It was inspired by nature, because she can not stand the strict symmetry. Japanese art avoids symmetry because it is a symbol of real estate, completion, and asymmetric gives the impression of incompleteness (and the constant pursuit of perfection) and expresses life. Trail we come to the lake and meet up with three horizontal grouped rocks - horizontal triad, which is a kind of focal point and divides the whole lake approach a tea pavilion, located on the left. It should be emphasized that these rocks of the composition which has a symbolic and sacred meaning and they may not sit or stand.
Across the lake takes us to the bridge of wooden planks that are joined to form an unusual bar on our way and this time is not linear, so we must be careful how we walk. This is connected with the belief that demons are going straight to the track and path in the garden mostly meander. The bridge and other details that can be found in the garden, it requires attention, concentration, a man who came to relax, contemplate, and requires a measured, slow pace, as opposed to accelerated everyday. With that bridge when we look to the left, we will see another, larger wooden bridge in the Chinese style, which connects the two hills - one in which the artificial tea pavilion, and other natural that stretch along the path of tree bark, and run as a land of stones which we can climb the steepest mountain road. When you cross the lake like walking on water (where you can see turtles in California, and soon the Japanese carp) arrive on the opposite side of where we go vertical triad - one large and two small lower stone, symbolizing the Buddha and his two companions, that symbolize the triad of man, heaven and earth.
There is also another lake, which is not to come, but it can be seen from the bridge or from a different perspective from the hills.
Further back we can continue to walk in several directions. One leads to the wall with a window and a thatched roof, which divides the garden from the environment, the second water bamboo behind the charter held by a wooden fence woven young branches, the third to the small stone bridge that was winding creek (kjokusui).
So, the garden for a walk has been carefully designed compositions that require a man of physical activity, active walking and open the senses to enjoy the various facilities. Changing scenes can be long to watch / listen to the "suitable location" at various points in the garden and offered refreshments senses, calm and relaxation. They are living landscapes that we turn to its symphony of spheres, the festive ambience, concert silence. We are here to make their presence, walking, movement, breathing, view, modify or disturb the harmony. Some details are there to provoke astonishment, delight and surprise. For example, a single rock that was placed on the lawn like a meteor was thrown into the landscape.
The grass is not trampled and going exclusively to the trails.
Tea pavilion is a separate entity and is home to the famous Japanese gardens cultivated tea ceremony. In Belgrade has not yet fully operational because there is no master of tea.
The Japanese garden has colorful flowers and a gorgeous fountain as is common in Western culture. The Japanese cherish and respect the modest crop, moss, ferns, wild flowers, and bonsai. The trees that the Japanese pine, maple, cherry. They all have a symbolic meaning. These are mostly plain, green crops that can cover the hills in the form of carpets, and bushes and hedges to shear waves or as they are made round and square haircut.
Compared to Western gardens, Japanese gardens are used differently. "The Japanese know how to view and garden is always a function of that knowledge," said one art historian. That means no stomping, and does not lie on the grass, do not practice some fun recreational activities, as in other western parks. So need specific training and sensitization of visitors to be able to enjoy the garden and know its capabilities, and on the other side and restrictions. It is interesting to listen to the comments of visitors such as: "It's nice this is, just where are benches to sit down?" and then the proposal where they could be set. Or "How will this way by the gravel with the wheelchair, do not come until pave!" , "I was in a zoo and there's so many restrictions like this, you must not sit on the stone, you must not play with water ..." , "What is the Japanese, why is it called a Japanese garden? Well, we all have this, this is like our Sumadija landscape - a creek, and one cottage, so are our peasant huts, only these little bridges ..."
Or another: "It's nice this is, this is great, it would be good if all of our parks were arranged like this" or "Japanese Garden is beautiful! Will be extended?"
There are many different comments and expectations ...
"But sabi, the patina that ignorant people can not see ... in any case must not be sacrificed," says a strict doctrine of the Japanese gardens.
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Overview and History
Belgrade is the capital of Serbia and has a population of just under two million. It's in the middle of the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe where the Danube and Sava rivers meet.
Belgrade is one of the oldest cities in Europe with a history that goes back seven thousand years! Of course, with two rivers meeting you can expect that there will be a lot of human activity across the ages. Caves with Neanderthal skulls and bones from the early Stone Age show the time frame we're talking about here.
Due to its strategically valuable position between East and West, Belgrade has been at the center of battles throughout most of its history. Our history begins with the Roman colonization (of course) at the end of the first Century AD, when it was called Singidunum. The Huns destroyed the city in 441AD and began a period of squabbling between Sarmatians, Goths, Gepidaes and more Goths. During this time the name of the city changed to Taurunum and Malevilla.
The Slavs permanently settled here in the seventh century then immediately fought the Bulgarians. The Slavic name "Beligarad" was first recorded around 878AD, then Hungary attacked and the Byzantine Empire took over, remaining in control until 1284. The first, second and third armies of the Crusades came through in the early middle ages, seeing Belgrade in ruins.
For the first time, Belgrade became part of Serbian rule when King Dragutin was given the city from the Hungarian Crown. More fighting ensued, Hungary repossessed the city and by the fifteenth century they were battling the Turkish Ottoman invasion.
Between 1440 and 1867 the Turkish controlled Belgrade except when they were temporarily defeated by armies from Bavaria, Savoy, and Austria. Under Turkish control Belgrade was the second largest city of the Ottoman Empire, surpassed only by Constantinople. Being stuck between the Ottoman and Hapsburg Empires was not the best place to be.
Several centuries of internal rebellions and periods of occupation by the Holy Roman Empire prevented industrial development as was seen in other European countries. Finally in 1878 Serbia was recognized as an independent state and kingdom with Belgrade as its capital.
The World Wars of the twentieth century were not kind to Serbia. In WWI it was heavily bombed and occupied by Austrian and German troops. The city was then liberated by Serbian troops only to dissolve into a dictatorship as of 1926.
In WWII Belgrade was bombed by the Allies and occupied by Germans, who massacred one hundred Serbs for every German killed. It was liberated by the Russian Red Army, ending up as the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945.
Recent history: Belgrade was the center of the last outbreak of smallpox in Europe during its Communist period, in 1972. Massive demonstrations took place in 1991 and protests over election fraud continued until 1997. Serbia has the highest hyperinflation in the history of mankind in the year 1993. The first non-Communist government was installed in 1997, the Kosovo War saw NATO bombing Belgrade (again) in 1999, and finally the dictatorship of Slobodan Milosevic ended in 2000AD.
Serbia got its first democratic government in 2001. Yugoslavia was formally brought to an end in 2003. Serbia and Montenegro declared independence in 2006 and Kosovo followed in 2008 under continuing dispute.
Nikola Tesla Airport is where you'll be flying in if you come by plane.
Do you know Tesla? He was one of the geniuses of the modern world, who invented radar and alternating current by drawing the pictures which appeared to him in visions. He came from Serbia and would have given the world FREE ELECTRICITY if the leaders of the industrial revolution had actually wanted what was best for humanity instead of what would make them personally rich. They took control of his inventions and he died a broken man.
Anyway, the airport connects to Belgrade by bus, taxi and car rental. It's 18km from downtown.
From what I hear, unlicensed taxi drivers try to shove you into their car outside the bus station. You should probably go a few blocks and catch a licensed taxi which has two number plates on the roof for proof. If you take a taxi, make sure it's got a blue city taxi sign on the roof, pay what's on the meter and don't pay any extra for your baggage.
You can get around the city by bus, trolleybus and trams. Night buses and trams operate on slightly different routes than daytime, and don't forget to get your ticket punched when you climb on board.
People and Culture
The official currency of Serbia is the dinar (RSD), which was 95 dinar to the Euro at the time of this writing.
Due to the many kinds of invasion in the history of Serbia, the people of Belgrade reflect Jewish, Asian, Muslim, Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox influences in their heritage. A friend of mine from Serbia said that people listen to the tallest guy in the room who shouts the loudest. (He said it in a funny way, it's not meant as an insult.)
Serbian food is hearty and nutritious. Think of Greek cooking combined with Croatian recipes -- minced meat grilled and seasoned spicy. Lots of lamb, pork and veal. Stuffed cabbage similar to Moussaka. Home made apricot brandy, man!
Try Loki for a bite at night. You will feel like you never had a hamburger before!
Things to do, Recommendations
If you're visiting Belgrade in early March, check out the annual International Film Festival. It goes up in the same month as the Belgrade Documentary and Short Film Festival, a competition.
For nightlife in Belgrade, you have a lot of options. There are clubs build on rafts in the river, called Splavovi. For regular clubs on land, start with Anderground, a famous club located underneath the Kalemegdan fortress. The list continues here. There are about a gazillion pubs and bars to choose from when your night is getting started, as well as casinos and jazz clubs.
Text by Steve Smith.