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Kamenets-podolskiy can not be imagined without the famous old castle - a unique defense installations XI-XVII centuries, built on a rocky cape near the narrow isthmus, which led through a long main road to the Old City. XI century stone fortification built on the basis of more ranih, little resembled the modern powerful stronghold C11 tower, connected by high walls. Remains of ancient fortification found in various parts of the castle: the day the tower - a fragment of wall with loopholes, and remains small, oval in terms of towers - castle courtyard near the middle Laskoyi tower.
The first significant development of the castle took place during the late mid-XIV-XV century, it began Spytko Melshtynskyy palatine of Cracow, who owned Kamianets four years (1395-1399) and died in battle with the Tatars. In the middle of XV century castle was decoration. Old tower upgraded, built 10 new (two of them survived). The second reconstruction took place in the middle of the XVI century under the direction of military engineer and architect Job Pretfesa, who built two towers - a new Western and Eastern New (over old wells, which has remained to this day), and tkozh Pol'na gate from the bridge, the remains were found recently by restorers.
At the beginning of XVII century with the advent of long-range artillery, military expert Theophilus Shomberh built before the western facade of the castle stone-earthen bastions, fortifications, which had the name of New Castle.
However, despite modernization, 1672 Castle captured Turkish troops led by Sultan Muhammad IV. The cause of the defeat of the Poles was not unreliability of fortifications, and the historical conditions of the Commonwealth, which at that time was unprepared to face a massive Turkish army.
In the XVIII - XIX century on the north and south were pristroennyh two bastions, erected in the courtyard of the barracks buildings. But despite numerous reconstruction, the castle is a unique architectural ensemble.
With Kamyanetsky lock connected many historical events and famous names. In 1711 he was visited by Peter
and praised the fortifications. Papal Legends surrounded by the famous tower, also known as Karmalyukovoyu.
In 1815 the fortress was under the military service of the Russian poet KM Batyushkov, a year later - Decembrist poet-VF Raevsky. In 1831, during the cholera epidemic here worked surgeon, writer, dialectologists VI Dal. Castle depicted in his works MP Starytskyi, VP Belyaev.
In 1928, according to the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR including locking in
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.