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ورودی مدرسه تاریخی خان
Shiraz

ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺧﺎن ﺷﯿﺮاز

‫ﺑﻨﺎی ﺗﺎرﯾﺨﯽ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺧﺎن ، ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ای وﺳﯿﻊ و دﻟﺒﺎز اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در دوران ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺖ ﺷﺎه ﻋﺒﺎس ﮐﺒﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ وﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﷲ وردﯾﺨﺎن واﻟﯽ ﻓﺎرس و ﻓﺮزﻧﺪ او اﻣﺎﻣﻘﻠﯽ ﺧﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ .

‫ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺧﺎن از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻨﺎھﺎی ﻣﺪارس ﻣﻌﺮوف و ﺑﺰرگ ﻋﻠﻮم ﻓﻘهی دوران ﺻﻔﻮی ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻪ اﺳﺤﺎق ﺑﯿﮓ ﺷﯿﺮاز واﻗﻊ ﮔﺮدﯾﺪه اﺳﺖ؛ اﯾﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ھﻤﺖ ﷲ وردی ﺧﺎن اﻓﺸﺎر واﻟﯽ ﺷﯿﺮاز و ﺳﭙهﺳﺎﻻر ﺷﺎه ﻋﺒﺎس ﺻﻔﻮی ﺑﻨﺎ ﮔﺬاﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ، ﭘﺲ از ﻣﺮگ اﯾﺸﺎن ﭘﺴﺮش ﺳﺮدار ﻧﺎﻣﯽ اﯾﺮان ، اﻣﺎم ﻗﻠﯽ ﺧﺎن در ﺳﺎل 1024 ھﺠﺮی ﻗﻤﺮی ﮐﺎر ﺑﻨﺎ را ﺑﻪ اﺗﻤﺎم رﺳﺎﻧﺪه ، زﯾﺮ ﺑﻨﺎی اﯾﻦ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﮏ ﺑﻨﺎ ھﺎی درون ﮔﺮا ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه 7686 ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ در زﻣﯿﻨﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ 5003 ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ در دو طﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺎ ﮔﺮدﯾﺪه اﺳﺖ ، ا ﯾﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ دارای ﯾﮑﺼﺪ ﺣﺠﺮه ﺟهت اﺳﮑﺎن طﻼب ﺑﻮده ﮐﻪ در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎ ﺿﺮ ھﻔﺘﺎد ھﺠﺮه ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎی ﻣﺎﻧﺪه و ﻧﯿﺰ ﺻﺤﻦ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺣﻮض ھﺸﺖ ﮔﻮش در ﻣﺮﮐﺰ و۴ ﺑﺎﻏﭽﻪ در ﭼهار طﺮف آن ﺑﻪ ھﻤﺮاه درﺧﺘﺎن ﻧﺎرﻧﺞ و ﻧﺨﻞ ﻣﺰﯾﻦ ﮔﺮدﯾﺪه اﺳﺖ ، طﻮل ﺻﺤﻦ 51 ﻣﺘﺮ و ﻋﺮض آن 45 ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .

‫ﺳﺮدر ورودی ﺑﺎ ﺗﺰﺋﯿﻨﺎت ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻋﺎﻟﯽ و ارﺗﻔﺎع ﭼﺸﻢ ﮔﯿﺮ ، ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ھﺎی ھﻔﺖ رﻧﮓ ﺗﺰﯾﯿﻦ ﺷﺪه و ﮔﻞ ﺑﻮﺗﻪ ھﺎی روی ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ھﺎ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺷﺎھﮑﺎرھﺎی ھﻨﺮ و ﻣﻌﻤﺎری و ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ﮐﺎری ﺑﻮده ھﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﻻی ﺳﺮدر، ﯾﮏ ﮐﺘﯿﺒﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﺛﻠﺚ ﻋﺎﻟﯽ و ﺑﺎ ﻗﻠﻢ درﺷﺖ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﮐﻪ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﮕﺮ ذوق واﻻی ھﻨﺮ ﻣﻨﺪ اﯾﺮاﻧﯽ اﺳﺖ .

‫داﻻن ورودی ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ھﺸﺘﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﮑﻞ زﯾﺒﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻨﺒﺪی ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ﻻﺟﻮردی آﺑﯽ و ﮔﻞ ﺑﻮﺗﻪ ھﺎی زﯾﺒﺎ ﻣﺰﯾﻦ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ . در زﻣﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺖ و ﺗﺎ ﻋﺼﺮ زﻧﺪﯾﻪ در طﺮﻓﯿﻦ ﺟﺒهه ﻏﺮﺑﯽ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ دو ﮔﻠﺪﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ آﺟﺮی ﺑﺎ ﺗﺰﯾﯿﻨﺎت و ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ﮐﺎری ﻣﻔﺼﻠﯽ وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻟﯿﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻂ ﺑﻮدن ﺑﺮ ارگ ﺣﮑﻮﻣﺘﯽ ﮐﺮﯾﻢ ﺧﺎن زﻧﺪ وﯾﺮان ﮔﺮدﯾﺪه اﺳﺖ ، ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ﮐﺎرﯾهای ﺳﻘﻒ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ ﺷﯿ ﺦ ﻟﻄﻒ ﷲ در اﺻﻔهان ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، در ﺣﺎﺷﯿﻪ ﺳﻘﻒ آﯾﺎت ﻗﺮآﻧﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﺛﻠﺚ ﻋﺎﻟﯽ وﺟﻮد دارد ﮐﻪ در ﮐﺘﯿﺒﻪ آن ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎل 1024 ھﺠﺮی ﻗﻤﺮی ﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ، ﺑﺎﻻی داﻻن ، ﺗﺎﻻر وﺳﯿﻌﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ روزﮔﺎری ﺣﮑﯿﻢ ﻣﻼﺻﺪرا ﻣﻠﻘﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺪراﻟﻤﺘﺄﻟهین ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻪ اﺷﺮاق در آن ﺗﺪرﯾﺲ ﻣﯿﮑﺮده اﺳﺖ .

‫در4 ﺳﻤﺖ ﺣﯿﺎط 4 طﺎق ﻧﻤﺎی ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﺷﯽ ﮐﺎری ﻣﺰﯾﻦ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺳﺮ در ﻏﺮﺑﯽ آن ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎزﮔﯽ ﻣﺮﻣﺖ ﮔﺸﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.

‫ﯾﮑﯽ از وﯾﮋﮔﯽ ھﺎی اﯾﻦ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﮔﯿﺮی اﻋﺪاد ﻣﻘﺪس در ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ان اﺳﺖ. ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺣﺠﺮه ھﺎی ان 92 ﻋﺪد اﺳﺘﮑﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮوف ﺟﻤﻞ اﺳﻢ ﻣﺒﺎرک ﺣﻀﺮت ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ص اﺳﺖ. دو اﺗﺎق ان و اﺗﺎ ﻗهای درس ﺧﺎرج ﻣﺠﻤﻋﺎً ﭼهارده ﻣﯿﺸﻮد ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﮐﺮدن ﺗﻌﺪادی ا زﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻋﺪد ﺻﺪ وده اﺳﻢ ﺣﻀﺮت اﻣﯿﺮ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ اﯾﺪ .ﻣﻌﻤﺎر ﺑﻨﺎ اﺳﺘﺎد ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺷﻤﺎع ﺷﯿﺮازی اﺳﺖ.ﺣﺠﺮه ھﺎی ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ دارای ﯾﮏ اﯾﻮاﻧﭽﻪ و دارای ﻓﻀﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮای ﯾﮏ ﻧﻔﺮ ھﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﭘﺴﺘﻮ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ دارای اﻧﺒﺎر ﮐﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ و ﮐﻤﺮ ﭘﻮش ﯾﺎ ﻧﯿﻢ اﺷﮑﻮب ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. اﻧﺪازه ﺣﺠﺮه ھﺎ ﭼﯿﺰی در ﺣﺪود 3.30*3.62 ﻣﺘﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺑﮫ ﺮاﺣﺘﯽ ﮔﺮم ﻣﯿﺸﺪه و ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎن ھﻢ ﺑﺪﻟﯿﻞ واﻗﻊ ﺷﺪن در وﺳﻂ ﺑﺎﻏﯽ ﺑﺰرگ ﮐﻪ اﻻن از ﺑﯿﻦ رﻓﺘﻪ ﺧﻨﮏ ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ. اﯾﻦ ﺑﺎغ ﭘﯿﺮاﻣﻮن ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ و ﮐﻼ ﺟﺎی دﻧﺠﯽ ﺑﺮای ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ و اﺳﺘﺮاﺣﺖ ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎت ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ در ﺧﺎرج ﻗﺮار داﺷﺘﻨﺪ ﭼهار ﻋﺪد در ﺷﻤﺎل و ﺟﻨﻮب و دو ﻋﺪد در ﺷﺮق ان در زﯾﺮ زﻣﯿﻦ اﺳﺖ. ﭘﻮﺷﺶ طﺎﻗها ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﺘﻨﻮع اﺳﺖ .ﮐﺎر ﺑﻨﺪی ﮐﺮﯾﺎس ان از ﻧﻮع اﺧﺘﺮی و ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﺧﻮاﺑﯿﺪه اﺳﺖ.اﻧﻮاع ﮐﺎ رﺑﻨﺪی ھﺎی ﻧﯿﻢ ﮐﺎر و طﺎق ﮐﺠﺎوه در ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ھﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺨﺼﻮص در ﺣﺠﺮه ھﺎ ﻣﺸﺎھﺪه ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.

Copyright: Amin Abedini
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 6000x3000
Uploaded: 02/09/2013
Updated: 16/07/2014
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Tags: khan; school; shiraz; fars; iran; aminabedini; historical; entrance; pattern; arabesque; dome
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More About Shiraz

Shiraz is the fifth most populated city in Iran and the capital of Fars Province. It is located in the southwest of Iran, has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than a thousand years.The earliest reference to the city, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffavid period.Shiraz is known as the city of poets, wine and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities.