Of the many sights hidden high up in the hills above Budva, Kosmač Fortress is perhaps the impressive. A fine example of functional mid-19th century military architecture, it was built during the 1840s along what was then the border between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Montenegro, and was the most important and strategically placed of the chain of defensive fortifications in the area - receiving a personal visit from Emperor Franz Joseph himself in 1875. Constructed from grey limestone dug out from local quarries, the fortress still blends in quite seamlessly with the rugged rocky terrain. Nowadays the structure is in a state of disrepair that could even be called ruins (as it's missing its roof and significant portions of its tower and walls), but it is still a visually stunning specimen with breathtaking views.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.