Grad Kotor [Crna Gora]
Kotor is located in Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°25′48″N 18°46′12″ECoordinates: 42°25′48″N 18°46′12″E
Founded 5th century BC
Government - Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS)
Area - Municipality 335 km2 (129.3 sq mi)
Population (2003 census)
- Total 5,341
- Density 68/km2 (176.1/sq mi)
- Municipality 22,947
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 85330
Area code +382 32
ISO 3166-2 code ME-10
Car Plates KO
Kotor (Serbian: Котор / Kotor, pronounced [kɔ̌tɔr] or [kɔ̂tɔr]; Latin: Acruvium; Greek: Ασκρήβιον, Askrèvion; Italian: Càttaro) is a coastal city in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality.
The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by an impressive city wall built by the Republic of Venice and Venetian influence remains predominant in the city's architecture. The Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea, is sometimes called the southern-most fjord in Europe (though it is actually a submerged river canyon). Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive and picturesque Mediterranean landscape.
In recent years, Kotor has seen a steady increase in tourists, attracted by both the natural beauty of the Gulf of Kotor and the old town of Kotor itself.
Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor.
Entrance of old town Kotor with sign "What belongs to others we don't want, what is ours we will never surrender."
Kotor, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, Ascrivium, or Ascruvium and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia.
Kotor has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Acruvium in AD 535, after expelling the Goths; a second town probably grew up on the heights round it, for Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the 10th century, alludes to Lower Kotor. The city was plundered by the Saracens in 840. Until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was spoken in Kotor.
In 1002, the city suffered damage under occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire, and in the following year it was ceded to Serbia by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil. However, the local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with the Republic of Ragusa, only submitted in 1184, while maintaining its republican institutions and its right to conclude treaties and engage in war. It was already an episcopal see, and, in the 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism.
In the 14th century, commerce in Cattaro, as the city was then called, rivalled that of the nearby Republic of Ragusa and Venice. The city was part of the Venetian Albania province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797, except for periods of Ottoman rule between 1538–1571 and 1657-1699. Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributed to make Kotor a UNESCO world heritage site.
The ancient fortifications of Kotor
While under Venetian rule, Kotor was besieged by the Ottoman Empire in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, and was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667. After the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Pressburg, although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin. After the Russians retreated, Kotor was united in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Kotor was captured by the daring British attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen (18 guns). To seal off Kotor in windless conditions, residents along the shore literally pulled the ship in windless conditions with ropes. Saracen's crew later hauled naval 18-pounder guns above Fort St. John, the fortress near Kotor, and were reinforced by Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante (38 guns). The French garrison had no alternative but to surrender, which it did on 5 January 1814.
It was then restored to the Austrian Empire by the Congress of Vienna.
Street in Kotor
In World War I, Kotor was one of three main bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy and homeport to the Austrian Fifth Fleet, consisting of pre-dreadnought battleships and light cruisers. The area was the site of some of the fiercest battles between local Montenegrin Slavs, and Austria-Hungary. After 1918, the city (called Càttaro until then) became a part of Yugoslavia and officially became known as Kotor.
Between 1941 and 1943 Italy annexed the area of Kotor to the Italian "Governorship of Dalmatia" and created a new Italian Province: the Provincia di Cattaro, with 1075 km² and 128,000 population
But after 1945 it became a part of the then Socialist Republic of Montenegro within Yugoslavia's second incarnation.
In 1979 (April 15) a major earthquake hit the Montenegrin coastal area. There were approximately 100 casualties. Half of Kotor's Old Town was destroyed and St. Tryphon's Cathedral was partly damaged.
Up until the beginning of the 20th century, Croatian Catholics constituted the majority around the Gulf of Kotor.
Kotor is still the seat of the Croatian Catholic Bishopric of Kotor, which covers the entire gulf.
Kotor, part of the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
20090719 Crkva Gospa od Zdravlja Kotor Bay Montenegro.jpg
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Region ** Europe and North America
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO
Kotor is the administrative centre of Kotor municipality, which includes the towns of Dobrota, Risan and Perast, as well as many small hamlets around the Bay of Kotor. The municipality has a population of 22,947 (2003 census). The town of Kotor itself has 5,341 inhabitants, but Kotor and Dobrota are practically one town, with a combined population of 13,176.
Population of Kotor (Including Dobrota):
March 3, 1981 - 10,780
March 3, 1991 - 12,903
November 1, 2003–13,176
Ethnic groups (1991 census):
Ethnic groups (2003 census) - 22,947:
Montenegrins - 10,741 (46.81%)
Serbs - 7,094 (30.91%)
Croats - 1,762 (7.68%)
Yugoslavs - 168 (0.73%)
Muslims - 106 (0.46%)
Albanians - 76 (0.33%)
Macedonian Slavs - 49 (0.21%)
Romas - 48 (0.21%)
Russians - 39 (0.17%)
Slovenes - 35 (0.15%)
Italians - 32 (0.14%)
Hungarians - 32 (0.14%)
Egyptians - 20 (0.09%)
Bosniaks - 16 (0.07%)
Germans - 14 (0.06%)
others - 133 (0.58%)
undeclared/undefined - 2,165 (9.43%)
regionally affiliated - 202 (0.88%)
no data - 215 (0.94)
According to documents from 1900, Kotor had 7,617 Catholics, and 7,207 Orthodox Christians.
Kotor is still the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor, which covers the entire gulf.
The 2003 census listed 22,947 citizens, of whom 78% were Orthodox Christians, 13% were listed as Roman Catholic.
Tomislav Crnković, Croatian footballer
Stevan Faddy, Montenegrin Singer
Zoran Gopčević, Montenegrin waterpolo player
Vasko Lipovac, Croatian painter
Ratimir Martinović, Montenegrin pianist
Danilo Saveljić, Slovenian footballer
Vlaho Orlić, Montenegrin waterpolo coach
Andrija Paltašić, painter
Nina Petković, Montenegrin singer and television personality
Viktor Vida, Croatian write
Boško Vuksanović, Montenegrin waterpolo coach
Kotor has one of the best preserved medieval old towns in the Adriatic and is a UNESCO world heritage site. It has numerous other sights, such as the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in the old town (built in 1166), and ancient walls which stretch for 4.5 km directly above the city. Sveti Đorđe and Gospa od Škrpijela islets off the coast of Perast are also among the more popular destinations in the vicinity of Kotor.
Kotor hosts several summer events, such as the Summer Carnival or Bokeljska Noć.
Together with Budva, the city hosted the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) World Carnival City Congress in May 2009.
Kotor is connected to the Adriatic Motorway and the rest of the coast and inland Montenegro by Vrmac Tunnel. Inland is reachable by detouring from Adriatic motorway at Budva or Sutomore (through Sozina tunnel). There is also a historic road connecting Kotor with Cetinje, which offers spectacular views of Kotor bay.
Tivat Airport is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away, and there are regular flights to Belgrade, Moscow and Paris and dozens of charter planes land daily on Tivat airport during the summer season.
Podgorica Airport is 65 kilometres (40 mi) away, and it has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year.
Photo: Virtuelne ture
Kotor is a coastal city in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The cit...
Kotor is a coastal city in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The cit...
Пьяцца од Салате одна из самых живописных в Которе. Раньше на ней продавали зелень, овощи и фрукты жи...
View of the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon. Start of construction 1166. It belongs to the monuments of By...
Вид на дворец Пима 17век. на Мучной площади. Здание построено в стиле ренессанс и принадлежало знатно...
Saint Tripun Cathedral is the most important medieval monument in the old Kotora.Podignuta the cultur...
Pjaca Svetog Trifuna
The Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor is one of two Roman Catholic cathedrals in Montenegro. It is...
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.