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상해 대한민국임시정부 [ 大韓民國臨時政府 ] 유적지
Shanghai

1919년 중국 상해에서 한국독립운동자들이 수립했던 임시정부. 임시정부란 정식정부를 수립하기 위한 준비정부를 가리키는 말이다. 국내외에서 3·1운동이 전민족운동으로 확산될 때, 독립정신을 집약하여 우리 민족이 주권국민이라는 뜻을 표현하고, 또 독립운동을 능률적으로 발전시키기 위해 조직하였다. 그 뒤 1945년 8·15광복까지 27년 동안 상해(上海)를 비롯한 중국 각처에서 한국인의 독립과 자유를 위해 투쟁하였다. 그런데 정부라고 하면 국제법상 통치권이 미치는 국토와 국민이 있어야 하는데, 통치권을 행사할 대상이 없었으므로 일반 정부와는 성격이 달랐다. 그리고 망명정부도 아니었다. 대한제국과 시간적 연속성이 없고 주체세력이 다르고 이념이 달랐으므로 망명정부가 될 수 없었다. 그러나 전민족운동이었던 3·1운동에 의해 수립된 임시정부였으므로 전민족의 의지와 이념적 기반 위에 설립된 정부적 조직임에는 틀림없었다. 따라서, 국제적으로는 주권국민의 대표기관(정부)으로서, 또 대내적으로는 독립운동의 통할기구로서의 구실을 가지고 탄생하였다. 3·1운동을 전후로 국내외 7개의 임시정부가 수립되었으나, 상해를 거점으로 1919년 9월 개헌형식으로 통합되어 대한민국임시정부가 되었다. 상해에 있던 시기(1919∼1932)에는 국내외동포사회에 통할조직을 확대하면서 외교활동이나 독립전쟁 등을 지도, 통할하는 데 주력하였다. 특히, 초기의 독립전쟁은 만주와 연해주(沿海州)의 독립군단체에 일임하고, 연통부와 교통국 등 비밀조직의 운영과 외교활동에 전념하였다. 그런데 베르사이유 강화체제에 의한 국제적 안정기조를 고집하는 열강의 냉대와 일제의 추격에 의한 국내조직의 파괴, 그리고 상해·만주·연해주·하와이 등 해외 각처에 산재한 동포사회 사이의 교통·통신의 장벽과 당해국가인 중국·소련·미국 등의 방해 또는 방관적 비협조로 애초의 계획대로 독립운동을 계속하기에는 어려움이 많았다. 그 위에 헌정을 기초로 한 민주공화정부 체제였으나, 운영 기술이 미숙하여 국민적 지지기반이 붕괴되고 있었다. 그렇지만 독립의지를 관철하기 위해서는 국민적 기반을 회복하는 어떤 방도를 찾아야만 하였다. 그래서 정부 외곽에서는 공론(公論) 수합을 위해 국민대표회(1923)가 소집되었고, 두 차례에 걸쳐 헌법개정을 단행하였으며(1925·1927), 민족유일당촉성운동(1927) 등을 추진하였지만, 침체성을 벗어나지 못하였다. 그런데 1932년 4월 윤봉길(尹奉吉)의 의거로 활로를 찾게 되었다. 그러나 일제의 발악적인 반격으로 상해를 떠나게 되었고, 뒤이어 일어난 중일전쟁(1937)으로 중국 각처를 옮겨 다녀야 하는 수난을 겪어야만 했다. 상해(1919)·항저우(杭州, 1932)·전장(鎭江, 1935)·창사(長沙, 1937)·광둥(廣東, 1938)·류저우(柳州, 1938)·치장(?江, 1939)·충칭(重慶, 1940) 등지를 차례로 이동하며 기착하였던 것이다. 참조:네이버 지식백과 http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=657660&categoryId=1593

Copyright: You changyeol
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Resolution: 8812x4406
Uploaded: 15/08/2012
Updated: 21/07/2014
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Tags: 대한민국임시정부; [ 大韓民國臨時政府 ]; 상해 임시정부
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Overview and HistoryIn contrast to the long and deep history of most Chinese cities, the story of Shanghai is rather short and to the point. It began as a fishing village, got rich, and suddenly became the biggest city in China.Let's see what's at the bottom of it all. Archaeological digs around Shanghai show artifacts dating to the Neolithic Period six thousand years ago, giving evidence of hunters, fishermen and early farmers. During the period of warring states in ancient China, Shanghai was nothing more than a little fishing village. Around the year 200 AD, in the Han Dynasty, Shanghai developed industries of salt production, casting coins and other metallurgic processes.Over the next five centuries Shanghai grew and became a major food producer for southern China, gathering population and increasing its trading. After the nearby Wusong river filled with silt, Shanghai found a niche as a shipping port and attracted a much wider range of traffickers.The town of Shanghai was officially established in 1267 AD amidst a swarm of merchant ships doing business. It became one of only seven maritime shipping headquarters in the whole of China.Industrial development of cotton and textiles combined with the transportation capacity of the port to make Shanghai into the largest cotton producer in the country. International trade began along with the carriage trade along the Yangtze River.A Customs Office was established in 1685 to collect import taxes in response to the growing arrival of foreign ships. By the nineteenth century Shanghai was a paradise of international trade in textiles, porcelain and industrial raw materials with a large service economy of banking, printing, architecture and pharmaceuticals.This set the stage for the Opium Wars of the nineteenth Century. The British were doing a booming business taking opium from India and selling it in China, to offset their transportation costs of whatever they wanted to bring back from the "far east." They were annoyed at both the high Chinese import taxes and the prohibition of opium import in the middle of this "Adventurer's Paradise".Understandably, the Chinese didn't like drug-dealing foreigners turning all their people into addicts! Opium was first used in its medical capacity for stopping diarrhea, but the pharmacists of the day prescribed it everywhere in the world as a cure-all for almost any symptom. By the seventeenth century, thousands of Chinese opium addicts along with a serious smuggling trade had arrived in China's cities. This was the fundamental conflict that led to the Opium Wars of the 1840's and 50's.Bang! The British had the naval power, China had the ports and desirable location. In the end, a series of treaties left Britain with Hong Kong and China with limitations on how they could rule even their own territory! Other ports and borders were soon opened to international trade and the precedent for the next one hundred years was set. This period is referred to by the Chinese as the time of unequal treaties; their amazing economic growth in recent years is a testament to their long memory of it.The twentieth century found Shanghai still growing with modern industry and improved production techniques in its factories. The Republic of China was founded in 1912 and in 1927 Shanghai was proclaimed to be a special municipality. It had a Chinese Section, the International Settlement and the French Concession.Japanese airplanes bombed Shanghai in 1932 and occupied the city as of 1937. They stayed until 1945 when, at the close of WWII, the Communist Party of China regained control of Shanghai. When the Communist party took over in 1949 and closed the borders to foreign investment, the economic development of Shanghai slowed dramatically. Most foreign investors withdrew and moved their offices to Hong Kong. The People's Republic of China ended Shanghai's status as the most cosmopolitan city in China.Getting ThereFly into Shanghai at one of its two airports, Pudong or Hongqiao. The Pudong airport is connected to the city via the world's first maglev train -- that's a magnetic levitation system where the train doesn't have wheels. It covers the 30km distance in a matter of seven minutes, whooooosh!TransportationPublic transportation within Shanghai is extensive and well-developed. There are buses, trolleys, taxis and a growing metro system. Their version of a monthly pass is the Shanghai Public Transportation Card. It uses radio frequencies to communicate with the scanner without any physical contact! There's a little microchip in the card that does it as you walk through the entrance. It's an interesting technology which is adaptable to being implanted within humans, too.The bus system is the most extensive in the world with almost one thousand different lines. Use of the public transport is encouraged by a limited number of vehicle license plates and also gradual restrictions on bicycle riding.People and CultureShanghai's rapid growth has filled it with ambitious people at a high population density. It can feel crowded and competitive just as any other large city like New York or London. Shanghai's art and culture has the reputation of lagging behind its financial growth, however, artists are working to create world-class contributions to represent their city.Things to do, RecommendationsThe Bund is on top of the list of must-see Shanghai spots. It's got a great collection of 20th Century buildings from the time when Shanghai was the financial center of foreign investment.Stop in at the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum for a look at some of the more recent progress after the Bund.The Shanghai East arts center is an important symbolic and cultural center which, when seen from above, blooms out from its center like a flower with five petals. It's got the most advanced technical setup of any theater facility in the country and perhaps, the world.It's not all high-tech, don't worry. Shanghai has some beautiful gardens like this one, the Yuyuan Garden, where you can rest your eyes and refresh your spirits among the balance of nature.Here you go, the moment you've all been waiting for! It's the Oriental Pearl Broadcasting & TV Tower, second tallest in Asia and fourth tallest in the entire world, behind only the Eiffel Tower in annual visitor numbers! This is the place above all else from which to view Shanghai. Enjoy!Text by Steve Smith.