For thousands of years before the road network was developed in the 18th Century (Turnpikes); farms, villages and towns were connected by narrow tracks called byways. They were the means for people, animals and goods to travel around the country. Because they were not surfaced, they would have been impossibly muddy during most of the year.
Shallow rivers and streams were crossed by means of fords. When the water was deep, more or less sophisticated bridges were built. They were called Packhorse Bridges after the horses and ponies which carried commercial goods in side-baskets or panniers.
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This narrow Pack Bridge connects the formerly sheep-wealthy villages of Woolverton and Rode in Somerset over the River Frome which, as you can see, would be impossible to cross when it is in flood.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.