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Construction of Sisak fortress, at the confluence of rivers Kupa and Sava, started in 1544. and was financed by Zagreb Archdiocese. Its purpose was the defense from invading Ottoman forces.
On 22nd June 1593, the field in front of the fortress became the scene of one of the most important battles in Croatian history.
Battle of Sisak
Hasan Pasha was known for his fighting spirit, and he didn't care much abouth the truce that was concluded with envoys of German Emperor and Croatian-Hungarian king, Rudolf II. On the contrary, in 1592 he seizes the Croatian fortress Bihać (today city in Bosnia), besieges the fortress of Sisak for the second time, but without success, and builds a fort named 'Yeni Hisar' at the confluence of rivers Kupa and Petrinjčica (today city of Petrinja, 12 km away from Sisak).
In mid-June 1593, with an army of about 12000 men, Hasan Pasha reaches the fortress of Sisak and besieges it for the third time. At the same time, the Christian army, 5000 men strong, assembled near Zagreb. In the joint Christian army of the Holy Roman Empire, Croats were commanded by Croatian ban Tomo Bakač Erdödy (Hungarian: Tamás Erdődy), Slovenes were commanded by general Andreas von Auersperg (Slovene: Andrej Turjaški, Croatian: Andrija Auersperg), and supreme commander was Styrian general Ruprecht von Eggenberg.
On 22nd June 1593, Christian army arrives to Sisak and clashes with the Ottomans. Turks, suppressed by concentrated fire of the Christian army marksman (musketeers and arquebusiers), panicked and started a chaotic retreat, until they were penned in a narrow space between two rivers. The bulk of the army with all the commanders, including Hasan Pasha Predojević, are said to have been slaughtered or drowned in the Kupa river.
It is estimated that over 8000 Turks were killed, while only 40–50 casualties were counted on Christian side. This battle is considered to be a turning point in a history of clashes along the Croat-Ottoman border, that lasted for over a 100 years until then. Defeat brought the expansion of Ottoman Empire into Central Europe to a temporary halt, and balanced the military power of the conflicting parties.
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights. In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states. Text by Steve Smith.