The Artifice of Juanelo Turriano, water wheels
Bottom of the device where they were located large water wheels. Even today in the stone walls that made up the ducts, you can see the support of the mechanisms of these wheels driven by the driving force for water flow. They had the peculiarity of his position to adapt to different levels of seasonal flooding, very frequent then stripped of its current river swamps, in order to stabilize its driving energy. This picture shows a collage made with the 2nd model of Juan Luis Fish Sales, professor, craftsman and model maker who spent years of his life to research and scientific analysis of wit. This model based on the theory of the inclined plane replaces the first one conducted on the theory, widely accepted until then, vertical towers and now housed in the palace of the Provincial Council of Toledo. There have been several attempts to reconstruct all or part of this plantation, in 1966 the General Directorate of Fine Arts decided to build it without success, and later there were several attempts that the tangled politics and other powers left in oblivion. Recently there are some serious reconstruction projects and documented as the foundation Juanelo Turriano (http://www.juaneloturriano.com/) that adds new 3D technologies. Today, with the enhancement of the banks in this area, and pedestrian and made the round inner ring would be a golden opportunity to try again. Toledo, thousands of visitors and the memory of the distinguished Juanelo Turriano, who died here completely ruined by the shameful municipal defaults, they deserve it. Source: Luis Moreno Nieto and Angel Moreno Santiago "Juanelo and Artifice" DB Publishing ISBN 84-611-3484-2
From 1568-1617 Toledo had a wonderful hydraulic machine, unique in the world, then doubled in another...
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.