4 Likes

Symbiosis in the Blue Lagoon, New Caledonia
ニューカレドニア

Coral reefs are all about symbiosis - the art of living together. When we look at an underwater scene like this one, we tend to focus on the brilliant blue fish Chromis viridis, or the blue Acropora coral, or perhaps the Dasyatis stingray in the sand. We see them all as separate, individual creatures. But they are, even as we watch, a collective being, and owe their very existence to mutually beneficial actions.

The blue demoiselle fish and the blue coral are excellent examples of this.

The blue coral thicket is the crystalized history of the behavior of millions of tiny anemone like creatures that extract calcium carbonate from the sea and secrete intricate skeletal homes - the small nodes you see on the coral branches.

Each branch grows upwards into the sea as the coral polyps bud new examples of themselves and convert the clear sea water into the calcium carbonate skeletal shelters that protect their soft tisues. The branch elongates at about 40 to 70-mm per year depending on the depth and availability of nutrients.

The coral tissue is filled with tiny algae symbionts, called zooxanthellae. These creatures convert sunlight into sugars and oxygen for the corals and facilitate the rapid extraction of calcium carbonate to build the skeleton of the coral branch. In turn, the zooxanthellae are protected by the coral skeleton and supplied with carbon dioxide and nutrients - like phosphates and nitrates (fertilizers) from the corals. Since the carbon dioxide and nitrates and phosphates are waste products for the corals this is an excellent partnership.

Nitrates and phosphates are rare compounds in the clear tropical waters of the Pacific and although the corals could get sufficient energy to survive from the photosynthetic activity of the zooxanthellae, they both would perish without phosphates. So the coral branches extend up into the sea water, allowing the tiny tentacles of the coral polyps to comb the sea for microscopic plants and animals that will supply the needed fertilizers.

These branches also protect swarms of fish. Some of these, like the blue Chromis demoiselle fish, swim up into the sea above the coral thickets and feed on plankton from the sea water. The fish drop their waste products back into the coral thicket in little pellets, rich in phosphates and nitrates. The coral polyps catch these fish droppings and ingest them, providing fertilizers that enhance the growth of the whole coral colony.

Just as the coral branches are a symbiosis of zooxanthellae and coral cells reaching up into the sea, the schools of tiny plankton feeding fish are an extension of this, reaching even further into the sea and bringing the nutrients back to help the entire assembly of creatures to grow larger. Over hundreds of years the coral thickets grow into coral reefs, forming lagoons and passes and islets that together act as one vast living system with myriad symbiotic systems of a wonderful, brilliant, exhilarating complexity.

Copyright: Richard chesher
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 14296x7148
送信日: 01/05/2010
更新日: 26/05/2014
見られた回数:

...


Tags: symbiosis; coral reef; zooxanthellae; new caledonia; coral lagoon; blue lagoon; underwater; diving; snorkeling; dive
comments powered by Disqus

Richard Chesher
Finding Nemo in New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
New Caledonia Shark - Underwater Panorama of a Leopard Shark Stegostoma Fasciatum
Richard Chesher
World Heritage Site New Caledonia Lagoon Coral Reef Batfish Platax Teira
Richard Chesher
Bird Fish Feeding Frenzy New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Massive Ancient Coral Head New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
New Caledonia Anchorage Aerial Panorama
Richard Chesher
Summer Calm in the New Caledonia Lagoon
Richard Chesher
Ilot Mato South Lagoon New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Ospreys Ilot Mato New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Coral Reef Nursery New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Giant Trevally Welcome New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
New Caledonia World Heritage Site Story
luis davilla
Perito moreno. argentina
Christian Bersano
View Factory
Wojciech Sadlej
Siena Cathedral
Alan McLean (Albiphotography)
Parallel Roads , Glen Roy , Roybridge
yunzen liu
Yunnan luoping blossoming rapeseed flowers ——Overlooking the rape flowers “sea”at the top of Golden Rooster Peak
Zoltan Duray
Budmerice castle
Willy Kaemena
Jerome Gold King Mine Ghost Town
Italy Intensives ECU
San Marco Pigeons
Kudo Kenji Photograph
上七軒「梅乃」奥座敷 Kyoto ochaya Kamishichiken
Роман Осташ
New-York-Street Pizza
Aurelio Ferrari
Convent of Bigorio - library
Unkle Kennykoala
Shiodome - Sculptures / 汐留
Richard Chesher
Best Western Le Paris Hotel Noumea
Richard Chesher
Jenolan Cave Australia Chifley Cave
Richard Chesher
Lifou tour New Caledonia Vanilla Plantation Mou
Richard Chesher
Ouvea Hotel Paradis Loyalty Islands New Caledonia Gazebo
Richard Chesher
Coral Coast New Caledonia Anse Majic
Richard Chesher
Bokissa Private Island Vanuatu Coral Reef 3
Richard Chesher
Shini Beach Mare Loyalty Islands
Richard Chesher
New Caledonia-GR1 Carenage River Overlook
Richard Chesher
Nemou Island New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Waterfall New Caledonia Kaori River Source2
Richard Chesher
Ua Coral Reef Sphere New Caledonia
Richard Chesher
Chapeau du Gendarme Noumea
More About ニューカレドニア

ニューカレドニアはオーストラリアとニュージーランドに最も近い南太平洋島です。ニューカレドニアはフランス領であり、フランス語が公用語として使われておりますが、文化はメラネシア、ヨーロッパ、ポリネシア、ベトナム、中国、インドネシア等多くの国の歴史をブレンドした国際的でユニークな文化を築いております。ニューカレドニアには、グランドテールと呼ばれる1つの大きな山の様な島と6つの小さい島があります。– 3つのロイヤルティー諸島、ベレップ諸島、イルデパン島島には果てしなく広がる荒野があり、そして驚くほど住民が少ないアイランドです。また何百キロメートルのウオ―キングトレック、キャンプ場、42以上の公園および特別保留地と輝やく滝を保つクリスタルクリアの川があります。人口3分の1ほとんどがヌメアの首都に居住しています。ニッケル採鉱はニューカレドニア第一の産業として、国の高い生活水準への主な役割をしています。グランドテールは世界で2番目に大きい堡礁に囲まれており、この堡礁によって造られ保護されたラグーンは、世界で最も大きいと言われております。この24,000平方キロメートルの巨大なラーグンは、2008年に世界遺産として記録され、多種多様の魚と無脊椎動物の豊かな動物群をサポートしています。 観光客のご到着しだい、一目に留まる島の活気に満ちたクリスタルクリアでリッチな風景は、皆様に大いに愛され感動なされています。ヌメアでは観光客のご滞在を更にご満喫いただけるよう、こちらの全てのホテル、リゾート、レストランおよび島でのアクティビティーを広範囲でご用意させて致しております。