The Leaning Tower at night
The Leaning Tower (13th century), one of the landmarks of Toruń, was a typical fortified tower, built as a part of the defensive city wall system at the turn of the 14th century. Originally, the tower was open on the town-facing side and included a gallery for guards who day and night made rounds, patrolling the city walls. In the 18th century the fourth wall was added and the tower became a prison for women; in the 19th century the tower was turned into a forge and a gunsmith’s quarters. The tilt of the 15-metre (49.2 feet) tower is currently 146.171 cm, i.e. 5°13'15 off the perpendicular on the side of the street. This anomaly, caused by ground subsiding under its foundations, has been willingly explained by legends.
The imposing edifice of Collegium Maximum of Nicolaus Copernicus University was erected over 100 year...
The Gothic burgher's house at 15 Kopernika Street known as the Copernicus House was built in the 15th...
The shadow of the Józef Piłsudski road bridge offers a good place for a rest on the Wisla river banks...
Nicely decorated hall in the Artus court cultural centre building (Dwor Artusa), named after king Art...
Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.