Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar...
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Panoramische foto door jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO Genomen 14:39, 28/01/2008 (CST +0800) - Views loading...


Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar-2008

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(Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar)

The Temple of Heaven round said that round Taiwan, offers a sacrifice to Tientai, to do obeisance Tientai, is the round world main body construction, because it is Ming and Qing Dynasties two generation of emperors lifts the line of hold offering sacrifice to heaven grand ceremony's god world, the Temple of Heaven namely the round acquires fame. The round world holds winter solstice offering sacrifice to heaven grand ceremony's place , constructs in the bright Jiajing nine years (1530), the main construction has the round, the emperor arched space and the side hall, the god kitchen, the three state storehouses and butchers the domestic animal pavilion, the appurtenance has clothing Taiwan, to look at the lamp and so on. When round Ming Dynasty is three blue color colored glaze round world, clear Qianlong ten the four years (1749) expands, and changes the blue color colored glaze for the Ye Qing Shitai surface, the white marble column, the fence. the round is the circular white marble Xumi bedstone world, 3, pass the height 5.17 meters, each world surface Ju Manyi leaf blue stone , link by white marble railing. Its upper formation world height 1.87 meters, the world surface diameter 23.65 meters, the center has the sky overhead stone, surrounds day the heart stone to have the flagstone 9 seriously, each heavy flagstone with 9 or 9 multiples, the sum total has flagstone 405. The intermediate deck world height 1.63 meters, the world surface diameter 39.31 meters, also lay bricks by 9 heavy flagstones, counts 1134, the lower level world height 1.67 meters, the world surface diameter 54.91 meters, with is 9 heavy flagstones lays, the flagstone number is 1863. Round East, West, South and North each direction all has the flight of steps leading to a palace hall, various proliferations flight of steps leading to a palace hall stair all 9 levels. The round decorative carving many are the dragon decoration, looks at the column column head to carve by the p'anlung sc gd, the water leakage plays the part of the head, but each Xumi place carves by Lei Wen, entangles the lotus grain.

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Panorama's in de omgeving van Beijing


A: The Circular Mound Altar-fan-shaped stone 扇形石 (1345)

door Dxinwei, minder dan 10 meter hier vandaan

圜丘坛扇形石:      天坛的圜丘台,建于明嘉靖九年(1530年),原是一座三层蓝色琉璃圆台,清乾隆十四年(1749年)扩建,将坛面、栏板、栏柱改换北京房山特产的“艾叶青”石。台高一丈六尺,三层四出陛...

The Circular Mound Altar-fan-shaped stone 扇形石 (1345)

B: The Circular Mound Altar-Heavenly Centre Stone 天心石 (1351)

door Dxinwei, 10 hier vandaan

天心石:      1、圜丘坛上层坛面中心的一块圆形石板称为“天心石”。其外环铺9块扇形石,第二圈为18块,依次至坛面铺满,共九圈81块扇形石。中层、下层坛面扇形石类似铺设,均为9的倍数。三层共有378...

The Circular Mound Altar-Heavenly Centre Stone 天心石 (1351)

C: The Circular Mound Altar-South Lingxing gate 南棂星门 (1333)

door Dxinwei, 30 hier vandaan

南棂星门:      圜丘有两道围护墙叫作“壝墙”。外壝墙呈方形,内壝墙为圆形,体现内圆外方、天圆地方之意。每道壝墙的东、南、西、北方的正位有一座棂星门。外壝墙还有一道矩形垣墙,垣墙四面有门,从东面依次...

The Circular Mound Altar-South Lingxing gate 南棂星门 (1333)

D: The Circular Mound Altar East Lingxing Gate 东棂星门 (1327)

door Dxinwei, 40 hier vandaan

东棂星门:      圜丘,始建于嘉靖九年(1530年),初期为三层蓝色琉璃圆坛,清乾隆十四年(1749年)扩建,改为北京房山特产“艾叶青”三层石台面,并围以汉白玉石柱、石栏板。上层汉白玉石栏板为72块...

The Circular Mound Altar East Lingxing Gate 东棂星门 (1327)

E: The Circular Mound Altar-West Lingxing gate 西棂星门 (1339)

door Dxinwei, 60 hier vandaan

西棂星门:      这里是圜丘坛西侧内外壝墙之间的棂星门甬道。两道壝墙均用青色琉璃瓦覆盖,象征着天。内壝墙为圆形,外壝墙为方形,象征天圆地方。内外壝墙的正位各有三座石门,共有24门。,称“棂星门”。棂...

The Circular Mound Altar-West Lingxing gate 西棂星门 (1339)

F: Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar-Two-2008

door jacky cheng, 60 hier vandaan

The Temple of Heaven round said that round Taiwan, offers a sacrifice to Tientai, to do obeisance Tie...

Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar-Two-2008

G: The Circular Mound Altar-North Lingxing Gate 北棂星门 (1321)

door Dxinwei, 70 hier vandaan

圜丘坛:      圜丘坛是一座三层的圆坛。圆坛四周有内、外两层壝墙,壝墙上铺以蓝色琉璃瓦。双重壝墙内圆外方,象征天圆地方。东、南、西、北四个方向的正位各开有一座棂星门。      圜丘坛三层四出陛,通...

The Circular Mound Altar-North Lingxing Gate 北棂星门 (1321)

H: The Circular Mound Altar-Firewood Stove 燔柴炉 (1357)

door Dxinwei, 70 hier vandaan

燔柴炉:      圜丘坛内外壝墙之间的东南角,有一个绿色琉璃砖砌成的圆形砖炉称为“燔柴炉”,是用来焚烧供品用的。燔柴炉的北侧放置了八个燎炉,是给清朝前八位皇帝焚烧供品的。燔柴炉和燎炉之间有一口井,是用...

The Circular Mound Altar-Firewood Stove 燔柴炉 (1357)

I: The Circular Mound Altar-lamp Post 望灯杆 (1363)

door Dxinwei, 70 hier vandaan

望灯杆:      望灯杆在圜丘坛内、外壝墙之间的西南角。望灯杆是插在高大的石质望灯台上的,以三根巨大木戗杆支撑。望灯杆是明朝嘉靖九年设置的,高9丈9尺9寸,现今的据说是嘉庆时保留的,为9丈。古时九丈合...

The Circular Mound Altar-lamp Post 望灯杆 (1363)

J: Imperial Vault of Heaven 皇穹宇 (1303)

door Dxinwei, 130 hier vandaan

皇穹宇院落:      皇穹宇院落位于圜丘坛外壝北侧,坐北朝南,圆形围墙,南面设三座琉璃门,主要建筑有皇穹宇和东西配殿,是供奉圜丘坛祭祀神位的场所。皇穹宇由环转16根柱子支撑,外层八根檐柱,中间八根金柱...

Imperial Vault of Heaven 皇穹宇 (1303)

Dit panorama is genomen in Beijing

Dit is een overzicht van Beijing

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!


Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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