0 Likes

Tian An Men 天安门 (259)
Beijing

天安门:

      天安门的主体建筑分为上下两层。

      上层是重檐歇山式,黄琉璃瓦顶的巍峨城楼,东西面阔九楹,南北进深五间,取“九五”之数,象征着皇帝的尊严。正面有36扇菱花格式门窗。城楼基座周围有汉白玉栏杆、栏板,雕刻着莲花宝瓶图案。城楼内所用木材大部分是楠木,60根红漆巨柱排列整齐,柱顶上有藻井与梁枋,绘着金龙吉祥彩画和团龙图案。地面铺的全是金砖,面积约2000平方米。屋顶的正脊与垂脊上装饰着螭吻、仙人、走兽;17盏古雅的大型宫灯,最大的那盏称为主灯,有8个面,全高6米,直径2.8米,重约450公斤,其余的16盏为6个面的辅灯,每个高6米,直径2.2米,重约350公斤。每盏灯上的角各有一盏伞形小等。

      下层是高13米的朱红色城台,四周环绕琉璃瓦封顶的矮墙,下部是1.59米高的雕刻精美的汉白玉须弥座台基。城台的总面积达4800平方米,东西两侧各有一条长达百级供上下城楼用的梯道,俗称马道。还有5个拱形门洞,中间的门洞最大,高8.82米,宽5.25米,唯有皇帝可以进出。

      城楼前有外金水河,河上飞架7座汉白玉雕栏石桥,中间一座最宽阔的称“御路桥”,专为皇帝而设。御路桥两旁有宗室亲王过往的“王公桥”;王公桥左右的“品级桥”是供三品以上的官员行走的;四品以下的官员和兵弁、夫役只能走“公生桥”,公生桥架在太庙和社稷坛门前。

Copyright: Dxinwei
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 8324x4162
Uploaded: 08/01/2014
Atualizado: 08/08/2014
Visitas:

...


Tags: gate
comments powered by Disqus

liubin
F 7
liubin
E
liubin
Liu0476 panorama
Kersten
Tiananmen Square
Ali Barnawi
Forbidden city 02 المدينة المحرمة
Roy Alvarez
Tiananmen Square
wongchichuen
Beijing Tiananmen Gate Tower(北京天安門城樓)
Dxinwei
Beijing Chang'an Avenue 北京长安街 (313)
liubin
长安街
jacky cheng
Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China
jacky cheng
Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China Panorama
Dxinwei
The Forbidden City Duan gate 端门城楼 (343)
Christian Kleiman
Theatre Tables - Benidorm Palace Virtual Tour - Cabaret Music Hall, Spectacles and Social Events
Scott Haraldson
Tin Whiskers
Volker Uhl
Cong Abbey
Gorazd Bajt
Meadow Razor
jacky cheng
2014-05 - Chengdu New Century Global Centre - Indoor -1
John Wood
Free Range Bird Brains
Volker Uhl
Bantry House and Garden
Tomek Zuk
Rehberg Sunset
John Wood
Aviation Still Life
Ivan Tsyrkunovich
Покровский Собор. Inside
Heiner Straesser - derPanoramafotograf.com
Tagar Cave Church, Cappadocia, Turkey
Andrew Bodrov
The launch of Proton-M rocket with Intelsat 23 satellite
Dxinwei
Gaoyou 秦观塑像 (031)
Dxinwei
Tianning Temple宝塔广场(151)
Dxinwei
Former site 中共湘赣边界特委旧址 (559)
Dxinwei
Zhaji Xu brook river 许溪河 (139)
Dxinwei
Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal Sanbao Street 三堡街(229013)
Dxinwei
Qingguo Lane Three heroes 一巷三杰(085)
Dxinwei
Tianmu Lake Sha River Reservoir 沙河水库 (055)
Dxinwei
WHite Emperor Temple 白帝庙 (594)
Dxinwei
Chancery mansion,Congshan lobby rear hall 從善堂-后进 (631)
Dxinwei
The 8th China Flower Expo-Poetic Jiangnan诗意江南(199)
Dxinwei
The city of Haining leather海宁皮革城-大黄鸭(175)
Dxinwei
1809a Panorama Cube Equi
More About Beijing

Overview and HistoryIn the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.Getting ThereThe Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!TransportationWithin the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.People and CultureOne of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.Things to do, RecommendationsBeijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!Text by Steve Smith.