Treaty of Passarowitz
The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac (Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац, German: Passarowitz, Turkish: Pasarofça), a town in Ottoman Empire (today Serbia), on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other.
During the years 1714-1718, the Ottomans had been successful against Venice in Greece and Crete, but had been defeated at Petrovaradin (1716) by the Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy.
The treaty reflected the military situation. The Ottoman Empire lost the Banat and southeastern Syrmia, central part of present-day Serbia (from Belgrade to south of Kruševac), a tiny strip of northern Bosnia and Lesser Walachia (Oltenia) to Austria. Venice renounced to the Peloponnesus peninsula (Morea in Italian) and Crete, gained by the Treaty of Karlowitz, retaining only the Ionian Islands, the cities of Preveza and Arta and Dalmatia.
The result of the treaty was the restoration of Habsburg administration over much of the territory of present-day Serbia, which they had temporarily had during the Great Turkish war between 1688 and 1699, and the effective establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia crownland, which would be acceded to the Ottomans in accordance to the Treaty of Belgrade, which had effectively reverted some parts of the Passarowitz treaty. Following the Treaty of Passarowitz, an Habsburg crownland known as the Banat of Temeswar was also established.
Northern Bosnia, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia including Belgrade, southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar and Lesser Walachia were regained by Ottoman Empire in 1739 by the Treaty of Belgrade.
Photo: Virtualne ture
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Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.