Austfjorden seen from Austfjordneshytta
While flying to our fieldwork area in the highest part of Ny Friesland, we found that strong winds, mist and clouds made work impossible. We took a quick stop at Austfjordneshytta to decide what to do. Unfortunately there was no improvement and we had to return home. That's the end of my 2011 geology fieldwork at Spitsbergen.
In the Templefjord in arctic Svalbard in the winter time the sailing ship SS Noorderlicht is frozen i...
Sunset on the deck of the sailing ship Noorderlicht.The ship is frozen in the ice of the Temple-fjord...
Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic, constituting the northernmost part of Norway.
The islands were first utilized as a whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established. The Spitsbergen Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, and the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway. This act also established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone. The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol are the only mining companies remaining on the islands. Research and tourism have become important supplementary industries. Two major research facilities are the University Centre in Svalbard and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobiles, aircraft and boats serve inter-community transport. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway to the rest of Europe.
The archipelago features an Arctic climate, although with significantly higher temperatures than other areas at the same latitude. The flora take advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, and also features polar bears, reindeer and marine mammals. Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the largely untouched, yet fragile, nature. Sixty percent of the archipelago is glacier, and the islands feature many mountains and fjords.