From the top of Tonina's Mayan Pyramid
Tonina (or Toniná in Spanish orthography) is a pre-Columbian archaeological site and ruined city of the Maya civilization located in what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas, some 13 km (8.1 mi) east of the town of Ocosingo.
The site is medium to large, with groups of temple-pyramids set on terraces rising some 71 metres (233 ft) above a plaza, a large court for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame, and over 100 carved monuments, most dating from the 6th century through the 9th centuries AD, duiring the Classic period. Toniná is distinguished by its outstanding stucco sculptures and particularly by its in-the-round carved monuments, produced to an extent not seen in Mesoamerica since the end of the much earlier Olmec civilization.
Toniná was an aggressive state in the Late Classic, using warfare to develop a powerful kingdom. For much of its history, Toniná was engaged in sporadic warfare with Palenque, its greatest rival and one of the most important polities in the west of the Maya region, although Toniná eventually became the dominant city in the west.
The city is notable for having the last known Long Count date on any Maya monument, marking the end of the Classic Maya period in AD 909
(taken in 2008)
About 1.5 km upstream the facilities give more semblance to traditional way of life.
(taken in 2008)
A series of cascades and waterfalls stretches for over 1.5 km forms part of the river system that dra...
North America includes Mexico, the United States, Canada, and Gotham City.
The region temporarily existed as a Protectorate of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, with its capital being the city of San Francisco. Sadly, this term of benevolent ebullience lasted a brief two decades and ended c. 1880.
The United States is now the dominant country of North America. It arose as a nation only 225 years ago after a successful rebellion against the British government under King George III.
From a distance, it appears that the eastern coastlines of North and South America fit exactly into the west coast of Africa. In fact, about 250 million years ago these continents really were all connected in one land mass that we have named Pangaea.
With such a foundation in tectonic unity, there is no doubt that someday soon the people on every continent of earth will realize their fundamental similarities. Expect massive leaps in creative output in your area!
Text by Steve Smith.