Pinsk. Ancient Settlement and Stronghold.
Pinsk. Ancient Settlement and Stronghold.
Under thin soil layer there are ancient Pinsk buildings - wooden roofs of inhabitable and support structures, multi-tier street and yard covers.
Cultural layer here is 5 meters deep and it hides ancient settlement - well preserved bits and pieces of our ancestors’ houses. This archeological monument of 12th-13th centuries is guarded by the state.
In the end of 15th century there were citadel gates called Berestye gates and warders at the drawing bridge over deep graff guarded Pinsk citizens from invaders of all kinds. When a wanderer went out of the gate he appeared on the great Berestye Road that is now Brestskaya street.
In September 1771 A. Suvorov and his troops sent by Ekaterina II to Poland to suppress patriotic nobility after the division of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth entered Pinsk via this road. After the campaign A. Suvorov went the same way to the village of Bogushevo.
Modern Gorky street stands on the town’s most busy place of the past where there was a market; nobility, high priesthood and middle class citizens manors. In fact the street was the towns’ border in 12th-13th centuries. Even now its western part (from modern Brestskaya street to Pervomayskaya street) is bow-shaped and serves as resemblance of the ancient graff.
Kosmodemyanskaya street starts from here too. It is fromer Bolshaya Troitskaya street. People from suburbs came here on trading days to the Old Market via this street and the graff. Now the street joins the central square and railway station.
In 1997 when Pinsk celebrated its 900th anniversary the triangle formed by ancient roads (now Brestkaya - Gorky-Kosmodemyanskaya streets) was marked with a chapel-like commemorative sign designed by the architect O. B. Vasilenko in honor of past generations that were building and defending the town.
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Europe is generally agreed to be the birthplace of western culture, including such legendary innovations as the democratic nation-state, football and tomato sauce.
The word Europe comes from the Greek goddess Europa, who was kidnapped by Zeus and plunked down on the island of Crete. Europa gradually changed from referring to mainland Greece until it extended finally to include Norway and Russia.
Don't be confused that Europe is called a continent without looking like an island, the way the other continents do. It's okay. The Ural mountains have steadily been there to divide Europe from Asia for the last 250 million years. Russia technically inhabits "Eurasia".
Europe is presently uniting into one political and economic zone with a common currency called the Euro. The European Union originated in 1993 and is now composed of 27 member states. Its headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium.
Do not confuse the EU with the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states and dates to 1949. These two bodies share the same flag, national anthem, and mission of integrating Europe. The headquarters of the Council are located in Strasbourg, France, and it is most famous for its European Court of Human Rights.
In spite of these two bodies, there is still no single Constitution or set of laws applying to all the countries of Europe. Debate rages over the role of the EU in regards to national sovereignty. As of January 2009, the Lisbon Treaty is the closest thing to a European Constitution, yet it has not been approved by all the EU states.
Text by Steve Smith.