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北京 香山 皇家园林特色的大型山林公园 3——香山寺遗址

香山公园位于北京西北郊小西山山脉东麓,距城20公里,占地160公顷,是一座著名的具有皇家园林特色的大型山林公园。香山公园文物古迹丰富珍贵,亭台楼阁似星辰散布山林之间。香山公园地势崛峻,峰峦叠翠,泉沛林茂。主峰香炉峰(俗称鬼见愁)海拔557米。香山公园的主要景点有:燕京八景之一“西山晴雪”; 明清两代建筑风格的寺院“碧云寺”; 国内仅存的木质贴金“五百罗汉堂”; 迎接六世班禅的行宫“宗镜大昭之庙”; 颇具江南特色的古雅庭院“见心斋”; 毛泽东在北平最早居住和办公的地方——双清别墅;世纪伟人孙中山先生灵柩暂厝地——碧云寺金刚宝座塔、碧云寺孙中山纪念堂及孙中山衣冠冢。还有:香山寺遗址,西山晴雪碑,昭庙,见心斋,眼镜湖,香山饭店。

  该全景是在香山寺遗址的石阶前的听法松拍摄,香山寺遗址即金大定二十六年(1186)所建之大永安寺, 原为金代行宫。据记载原有五层大殿,前有石坊、山门、钟鼓楼、城垣、红墙碧瓦掩映在苍松翠柏之中,为香山二十八景之一。经英法联军和八国联军二次浩劫之后,只剩下正殿前的石屏。石碑和石台阶等为数不多的几件不怕火燹的石头制品了。石屏本身有较高的艺术价值,正面中间是《金刚经》,左为《心经》,右为《观音经》,背面是燃灯、观音、普贤像。山门内有汉、满、蒙、藏四种文字的石碑,内容是乾隆书的《娑罗树歌》。山门外有几处著名古迹: 听法松:寺门两侧,有二株遒劲挺拔,枝叶繁茂的古松,状如听法,故名。 金鸡叫:在听法松下甬路中心的方砖上跺几脚,可听到铮铮之声,犹如金鸡啼鸣。 知乐濠:山门前石桥下有方池,上有汉白玉雕栏,池南侧有龙头,泉水流出,名知乐濠。 来青轩:该轩建在依崖叠石之上,登轩四望,青翠万状,故名来青。明万历二十八年(1596),万历皇帝祭陵归来,见此轩之匾额后,嫌小,遂书径尺"来青轩"三个大字。寺内还有护驾松、丹井等古迹


全景摄影 刘运增

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Copyright: 刘运增
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 9000x4500
Taken: 05/09/2011
上传: 08/09/2012
更新: 02/04/2015


Tags: beijing fragrant hills park xiangshan temple ruins
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More About 北京

Overview and HistoryIn the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.Getting ThereThe Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!TransportationWithin the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.People and CultureOne of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.Things to do, RecommendationsBeijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!Text by Steve Smith.