北京 世界文化遗产 UNESCO天坛——北京十大必游景点 皇穹宇 回音壁
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北京 世界文化遗产 UNESCO天坛——北京十大必游景点 皇穹宇 回音壁

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北京天坛地处原北京外城的东南部,故宫正南偏东,正阳门外东侧,始建于明朝永乐十八年(1420年),是中国古代明、清两朝历代皇帝祭天之地。这个建筑综合体是帝王祭天的场所,它创造了一个象征性的联系,来加强孔子的社会的等级制度。总面积为273公顷,是明清两代帝王用以“祭天”“祈谷”的建筑。天坛(Temple of Heaven)1961年,国务院公布天坛为“全国重点文物保护单位”;1998年被联合国教科文组织确认为“世界文化遗产” UNESCO;2009年,北京天坛入选中国世界纪录协会中国现存最大的皇帝祭天建筑。
  天坛建筑布局呈“回”字形,由两道坛墙分成内坛、外坛两大部分。外坛墙总长6416米,内坛墙总长3292米。最南的围墙呈方型,象征地,最北的围墙呈半圆型,象征天,北高南低,这既表示天高地低,又表示“天圆地方”。天坛的主要建筑物集中在内坛中轴线的南北两端,其间由一条宽阔的丹陛桥相连结,由南至北分别为圜丘坛、皇穹宇、祈年殿和皇乾殿等;另有神厨、宰牲亭和斋宫等建筑和古迹。设计巧妙,色彩调和,建筑高超。
  皇穹宇在成贞门之南,圜丘之北,是存贮祭天正位及配位、从祀位神版的场所,又称天库。皇穹宇有正殿、配殿、围垣及券门诸建筑,皇穹宇即因正殿榜书而得名。
  皇穹宇正殿为供奉皇天上帝及配祀诸神位之处,蓝色琉璃圆形单檐攒尖顶,鎏金宝顶,通高19.20米,直径15.60米。檐柱、金柱俱8根,南向开户,菱花格隔扇门窗,蓝琉璃槛墙,东西北三面封以砖俱干摆到顶。殿内穹窿圆顶,正中贴金盘龙藻井,贴金双龙天花,金柱贴金缠枝莲,内外施金龙和玺彩画。殿内正中有前圆后翘角石须弥座,座高1.51米,径2.53米。
  皇穹宇围垣具有传声功效,俗称回音壁,历史上皇穹宇围垣的传声功效颇使人迷惑,长期以来人们无法科学地解释这一现象。1953年,汤定元教授对皇穹宇建筑的声学效果进行了测试,认为皇穹宇围垣周密,表面光洁,使声波不被墙体吸纳,进而发生了反射,于是产生了回音,形成了独特的声学现象。这是历史上第一次对天坛诸建筑的回声现象进行的科学解释。

http://baike.baidu.com/view/38440.htm

http://www.beijing.cn/rcpage/yzy/page/100006.shtml

全景摄影 刘运增

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: Triple Sound Stone 三音石 (1309)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此地不超过10 米

三音石:      皇穹宇殿前甬路从北面数,前三块石板即为“三音石”。当站在第一块石板上击一下掌,只能听到一声回音;当站在第二块石板上击一下掌就可以听见两声回音;当站在第三块石板上击一下掌便听到连续不断...

Triple Sound Stone 三音石 (1309)

B: 天坛皇穹宇-2008

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处10远

天坛皇穹宇:(The imperial Vault of Heaven)皇穹宇位于天坛。是放置皇天上帝和皇帝上八代祖宗的牌位的地方,砖木结构,殿内没有横梁,全靠8根檐柱、8根金柱和众多的斗拱支托屋顶,巧...

天坛皇穹宇-2008

C: Imperial Vault of Heaven 皇穹宇 (1303)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处20远

皇穹宇院落:      皇穹宇院落位于圜丘坛外壝北侧,坐北朝南,圆形围墙,南面设三座琉璃门,主要建筑有皇穹宇和东西配殿,是供奉圜丘坛祭祀神位的场所。皇穹宇由环转16根柱子支撑,外层八根檐柱,中间八根金柱...

Imperial Vault of Heaven 皇穹宇 (1303)

D: The echo wall 回音壁 (1315)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处30远

回音壁:      皇穹宇院落周围的圆形围墙,墙高3.72米,厚0.9米,墙身用山东临清砖磨砖对缝,蓝琉璃瓦顶,这就是著名的“回音壁”。皇穹宇圆形院落的墙壁自然形成音波折射体,磨砖对缝的砌墙方式使墙体结...

The echo wall 回音壁 (1315)

E: The Circular Mound Altar Cheng-zhen door 成贞门 (1249)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处60远

成贞门:      1、天坛内坛由丹陛桥连接南北两端的圜丘坛和祈谷坛,内坛东西向有一道墙将祈谷坛和圜丘坛分成南北两部分,这道墙在丹陛桥的轴线上有座门就是成贞门。      2、天坛圜丘的四周有垣墙,垣墙...

The Circular Mound Altar Cheng-zhen door 成贞门 (1249)

F: The Circular Mound Altar-North Lingxing Gate 北棂星门 (1321)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处90远

圜丘坛:      圜丘坛是一座三层的圆坛。圆坛四周有内、外两层壝墙,壝墙上铺以蓝色琉璃瓦。双重壝墙内圆外方,象征天圆地方。东、南、西、北四个方向的正位各开有一座棂星门。      圜丘坛三层四出陛,通...

The Circular Mound Altar-North Lingxing Gate 北棂星门 (1321)

G: Dan-Bi Bridge 海墁大道 (1237)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处100远

海墁大道:      丹陛桥也叫海墁大道。始建于明永乐十八年(1420年),是一座巨大漫长的砖石平台,因其下面有两孔涵洞而称桥。      1976年丹陛桥改建时,桥面城砖被拆除,代之以水泥方砖。200...

Dan-Bi Bridge 海墁大道 (1237)

H: 天坛-圜丘台-2008

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处150远

天坛-圜丘台(Temple of Heaven-Circular Mound Altar)圜丘又称圜丘台、祭天台、拜天台,是圜丘坛的主体建筑,它是明清两代皇帝举行举行祭天大典的神坛,天坛即因圜丘得名。圜...

天坛-圜丘台-2008

I: The Circular Mound Altar-fan-shaped stone 扇形石 (1345)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处150远

圜丘坛扇形石:      天坛的圜丘台,建于明嘉靖九年(1530年),原是一座三层蓝色琉璃圆台,清乾隆十四年(1749年)扩建,将坛面、栏板、栏柱改换北京房山特产的“艾叶青”石。台高一丈六尺,三层四出陛...

The Circular Mound Altar-fan-shaped stone 扇形石 (1345)

J: The Circular Mound Altar-Heavenly Centre Stone 天心石 (1351)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处150远

天心石:      1、圜丘坛上层坛面中心的一块圆形石板称为“天心石”。其外环铺9块扇形石,第二圈为18块,依次至坛面铺满,共九圈81块扇形石。中层、下层坛面扇形石类似铺设,均为9的倍数。三层共有378...

The Circular Mound Altar-Heavenly Centre Stone 天心石 (1351)

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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