北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 3
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北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 3

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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北京中山公园位于北京市中心紫禁城(故宫)南面,天安门西侧,与故宫一墙之隔。它原是明清两代的社稷坛,与太庙(今劳动人民文化宫)一起沿袭周代以来“左祖右社”的礼制建造。中山公园现占地23万平方米,是—座纪念性的古典坛庙园林。
  中山公园中有中国古典花园应包括的亭、台、楼、阁四部分,花园的设计反映着中国道家的哲学思想。崎岖对平坦,明对暗,大配小,刚柔相衬。园内既有铺满睡莲的平静湖面,又有小桥下的潺潺流水。花草树木中,松、 竹、梅尤为显赫。前人赋予它们坚贞、正直、友爱的品格,给后人以美好的启迪。山石凸凹,崎岖有致,小径石阶,参差不平。雕刻着花鸟虫草的长廊又直又齐,水榭与亭台的地面又方又正。更让人感兴趣的是,公园虽小,但由于建筑师的构思巧妙,使人在游览时,有一种景景连绵,“柳暗花明又一村”之感。每当夏日的夜晚,在水榭对面的华枫堂,常有中国民乐演奏会。一曲《春江花月夜》,在水色山光的映衬下,将人们引向遥远的过去,带向大洋彼岸,让人如醉如痴。该全景是在北京中山公园的一条石板路上拍摄。

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全景摄影 刘运增

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在附近的图片北京

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A: 北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 1——习礼亭前的柏树林

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处20远

北京中山公园位于北京市中心紫禁城(故宫)南面,天安门西侧,与故宫一墙之隔。它原是明清两代的社稷坛,与太庙(今劳动人民文化宫)一起沿袭周代以来“左祖右社”的礼制建造。中山公园现占地23万平方米,是—座纪念...

北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 1——习礼亭前的柏树林

B: 北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 2——南门前的大柏树

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处20远

北京中山公园位于北京市中心紫禁城(故宫)南面,天安门西侧,与故宫一墙之隔。它原是明清两代的社稷坛,与太庙(今劳动人民文化宫)一起沿袭周代以来“左祖右社”的礼制建造。中山公园现占地23万平方米,是—座纪念...

北京 中山公园 中国古典坛庙园林 2——南门前的大柏树

C: 劳动人民文化宫(太庙)Palace of Culture (imperial ancestral temple)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处120远

劳动人民文化宫(太庙):在北京天安门东侧。总面积 139,650平方米,平面呈南北向长方形,正门在南,四周的围墙三重。主要建筑为三进大殿及配殿,前面有琉璃砖门及戟门各一座,前殿面阔11间,进深四间,重檐...

劳动人民文化宫(太庙)Palace of Culture (imperial ancestral temple)

D: Working People's Cultural Palace

摄影师Piotr Sliwinski, 距离此处130远

Part of the Cultural Palace near to Forbidden City main gate. It's open free daily and it's a good pl...

Working People's Cultural Palace

E: 劳动人民文化宫(大戟门)Palace of Culture (big house)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处140远

劳动人民文化宫(大戟门):位于天安门东侧,曾是明、清两代皇室家庙,旧称太庙。是封建王朝皇室供奉祖宗牌位、年节大典祭祀先人的地方,是现存最完整的明代建筑群之一。太庙呈南北方向的长方形,总建筑面积13965...

劳动人民文化宫(大戟门)Palace of Culture (big house)

F: 北京故宫午门

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处200远

午门是紫禁城的正门,位于正南北轴线上,前有端门、天安门,后有太和门,午门上有五座楼,所以午门也叫它五凤楼。午门东西北三面以十二米高的城台相连,环抱一个方形广场。这样,威严的午门,宛如三山环绕,五岳突起,...

北京故宫午门

G: 筒子河(故宫)Pony roll river (Imperial Palace)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处240远

筒子河(故宫)Pony roll river (Imperial Palace) 

筒子河(故宫)Pony roll river (Imperial Palace)

H: Forbidden city 04 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处300远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 04 المدينة المحرمة

I: 北京故宫护城河外看角楼

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处310远

在故宫紫禁城中,共有四城门,南面是午门,还有东华门,西华门和北面的神武门,整个宫城呈长方形,周围环绕着10多米高的城墙和50多米宽的护城河.城墙的四角上,各有一个玲珑奇巧的角楼.这些玲珑多姿,绚丽多彩的...

北京故宫护城河外看角楼

J: Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮), Beijing

摄影师黃志全, 距离此处380远

 The Palace Museum is housed in the Forbidden City, the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty...

Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮), Beijing

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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