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大钟寺-大钟楼;Dazhong Temple Big Bell Tower
北京

大钟寺 (古钟博物馆)

  原名觉生寺,建于清雍正十一年(1733年),因寺内珍藏一口明代永乐年间铸造的大钟而得名。
  古钟博物馆设有外国钟铃(欧洲)和战国编钟,共有400多不同的钟;其中战国编钟共有65个。东边是清代的钟,西边是明朝的钟。1985年这里成为了博物馆。
  佛道钟铃(一):清代是中国古代钟铃文化发展的晚期阶段,也是中国古代钟铃文化由繁盛走向衰落的阶段,清朝早期康熙、雍正、乾隆三朝盛世,铸造的钟工艺精良;到清代中晚期,随着国力的衰退,各种铸造的工艺越来越粗陋,不仅铁质佛钟数量增多,而且形体越来越小,纹样也变的粗糙。
  佛道钟铃(二):佛道钟铃出现在中国古代钟铃文化发展的后期阶段。佛钟又称梵钟,指佛教用钟。道钟:道教是中国的本土宗教。更钟:更钟是指中国古代城市中向公众统一报时的器具。佛教钟:佛教铃是指用于佛教领域的铃,主要充当佛教乐器、法器和佛教建筑的装饰品。金刚铃:金刚铃是佛教密宗的法器之一。
  钟铃铸造:中国古代钟铃的质地以青铜为主。青铜主要由铜、锡铅融合组成。它的方法有:失蜡法,分铸法,叠铸(筑)法,陶范法。
  明清精品:这里集中展出了明清时期北京地区铸造的古钟精品,既反映了中国古代钟铃铸造所取得的辉煌艺术成就,也体现了北京地区深厚的历史和文化。其中有:天宁寺铜钟,云纹铜钟,弘治道钟,张淮等造铜钟,三十五佛名铜钟,柏林寺铜钟,摩诃庵铜钟,药王庙铜钟,弥勒庵铜钟,铸佛铜钟,善缘庵铜钟等。
  永乐大钟:永乐大钟是明成祖朱棣下令铸造。通高675厘米,直径330厘米,重46500千克。钟身内壁有佛教经咒100多种,总计23万多字,有汉梵两种文字组成。已有600多年历史,是世界上最大的钟。
  在大钟楼东面的庭院里,按历史年代陈列着40余口形状各异的古钟。宋、元时代的钟呈桶形,如珍藏在藏经楼里的大钟,是宋熙宁年间铸造,距今已有900多年的历史,是大钟寺最古老的钟。明初开始钟口逐渐外张,呈喇叭形,反映出在我国古钟发展史上,人们对声学、力学原理的认识过程。

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Copyright: Jacky cheng
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 8644x4322
上传: 10/10/2009
更新: 18/06/2014
观看次数:

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Tags: panoram; photography; picture; china; landeshow; hotel; beijing
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More About 北京

Overview and HistoryIn the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.Getting ThereThe Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!TransportationWithin the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.People and CultureOne of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.Things to do, RecommendationsBeijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!Text by Steve Smith.