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全景摄影师 Yasushi Kishimoto 日期和时间 13:46, 03/05/2012 - Views loading...

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世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

标签: beijing, garden

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湖と柳が美しい頤和園は、清代には皇帝の離宮として栄えた壮大な庭園。

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: Summer Palace Beijing, Heralding Spring Pavilion

摄影师Henk Keijzer, 距离此处20远

Summer Palace Beijing, Heralding Spring Pavilion

Summer Palace Beijing, Heralding Spring Pavilion

B: 北京颐和园文昌院

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处90远

the Summer Palace is 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) from central Beijing. Having the largest royal park an...

北京颐和园文昌院

C: Summer Palace,Kunming Lake 颐和园-昆明湖 (055)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处110远

昆明湖:      昆明湖是颐和园的主要湖泊,占全园面积的四分之三,约220公顷,是清代皇家诸园中最大的湖泊。湖中一道长堤——西堤,堤上桃柳成行;十七孔桥横卧湖上,自西北逶迤向南,西堤及其支堤把湖面分为...

Summer Palace,Kunming Lake 颐和园-昆明湖 (055)

D: the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity 仁寿殿 (031)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处150远

仁寿殿:      仁寿殿,清漪园时名勤政殿,始建于清乾隆十五年(1750),咸丰十年(1860)被英法联军焚毁,光绪十二年(1886)重建,取《论语》中“仁者寿”之意,定名仁寿殿。在乾隆与光绪两个历史...

the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity 仁寿殿 (031)

E: Summer Palace,the Gate of Benevolence and Longevity 仁寿门 (019)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处190远

仁寿门:      东宫门内甬道两侧古柏夹荫,迎面是一座牌坊式门楼,边柱两侧连着红墙,此门为仁寿门。门前两侧的配殿为南北朝房,旧称南北九卿房。原是清代九卿六部的值房,为清代军机内阁办公的地方。     ...

Summer Palace,the Gate of Benevolence and Longevity 仁寿门 (019)

F: Summer Palace Beijing, Grand stage

摄影师Henk Keijzer, 距离此处210远

Summer Palace Beijing, Grand stage

Summer Palace Beijing, Grand stage

G: 颐和园-乐寿堂, (Summer Palace-Hall of Happiness and Longevity)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处220远

颐和园-乐寿堂:(Summer Palace-Hall of Happiness and Longevity) 北京颐和园内慈禧的寝宫乐寿堂,原为乾隆时期的清漪园建筑,建于乾隆十五年(1750年),是乾...

颐和园-乐寿堂, (Summer Palace-Hall of Happiness and Longevity)

H: Summer Palace, East Palace Gate 东宫门 (013)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处220远

东宫门:      东宫门区在颐和园最东边。这一带原是清朝皇帝从事政治活动和生活起居的地方,包括朝见大臣的仁寿殿和南北朝房、寝宫、大戏台、庭院等。门楣檐下全部用油彩描绘着绚丽的图案。六扇朱红色大门上镶嵌...

Summer Palace, East Palace Gate 东宫门 (013)

I: Summer Palace Beijing, Entry to the long corridor

摄影师Henk Keijzer, 距离此处220远

Summer Palace Beijing, Entry to the long corridor

Summer Palace Beijing, Entry to the long corridor

J: 颐和园大戏楼(Summer Palace-Grand Stage)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处220远

颐和园大戏楼(Summer Palace-Grand Stage): 慈禧太后爱看戏,而且对于剧中演员的服装、唱腔要求也极为严格,该唱上声的唱平声不行,该向右看的向左瞧不行。不但如此,慈禧太后对于看戏的...

颐和园大戏楼(Summer Palace-Grand Stage)

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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