Forbidden City // The Meridian Gate (...
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全景摄影师 Florian Frey // studiobaff.com PRO EXPERT 日期和时间 14:06, 05/02/2012 - Views loading...

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Forbidden City // The Meridian Gate ( 午门)

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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Meridian Gate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meridian_Gate Meridian Gate, circa 1901 The Meridian Gate (simplified Chinese: 午门; traditional Chinese: 午門; pinyin: Wǔmén; Manchu: Julergi dulimbai duka) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City. It has five arches. The three central arches are close together; the two flanking arches are farther apart from the three central arches. The center arch was formerly reserved for the Emperor alone; the exceptions were the Empress, who could enter it once on the day of her wedding, and the top three scholars of the triennial civil service examinations, who left the exams through the central arch. All other officials and servants had to use the four side arches. Above the arches are a series of buildings. The central one is the palace of nine bays wide, with double roofs. In each side, the 13 bays-wide building, single roof, connects the two pavilions on the top. The Emperor of China reviewed his troops from this location during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Its superstructure is also called the "Five Phoenix Turrets" because it is composed of five buildings.[1] Imperial proclamations and almanacs were issued from the gate house. After successful campaigns, the Emperor received prisoners of war here, sometimes followed by mass decapitations.[2] Although urban myth has it that senior officers were executed here in Imperial China; in reality only corporal punishment was actually carried out. Behind the viewer is Duanmen Gate, the principal entrance to the imperial palace grounds. When proceeding northward through the palace grounds, the next major gate encountered is the Gate of Supreme Harmony.

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮), Beijing

摄影师黃志全, 距离此处20远

 The Palace Museum is housed in the Forbidden City, the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty...

Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮), Beijing

B: the Meridian Gate 午门(北京故宫博物院)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处40远

午门是紫禁城的正门,位于紫禁城南北轴线。其前有端门、天安门皇城正门,明代称承天门)、大清门(明代称大明门),其后有太和门(明代称奉天门,后改称皇极门,清代改今名)。各门之内,两侧排列整齐的廊庑。这种以门...

the Meridian Gate 午门(北京故宫博物院)

C: Forbidden city 05 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处60远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 05 المدينة المحرمة

D: Forbidden city 05 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处90远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 05 المدينة المحرمة

E: Golden water river in the Forbidden City 内金水河 (367)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处170远

紫禁城内金水河:      1、紫禁城内金水河的源头,是引自北京西郊玉泉山注入的。            2、紫禁城内金水河,两头接护城河,全长约二千米。河虽短,却上有源头,下有汇流。在紫禁城西北角楼偏...

Golden water river in the Forbidden City 内金水河 (367)

F: Forbidden City Ticket Office 故宫-售票处 (349)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处180远

故宫售票处:      故宫售票处在午门南侧。旺季期间,售票窗口排队时间可能长达20分钟,建议采取网上订票的方式,凭身份证才能入院参观。      • 周一开馆时间:每周一开馆时间8:30,止票时间11...

Forbidden City Ticket Office 故宫-售票处 (349)

G: Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮2), Beijing

摄影师黃志全, 距离此处220远

The Palace Museum is housed in the Forbidden City, the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty ...

Forbidden Palace Museum(北京故宮2), Beijing

H: Forbidden city 06 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处230远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 06 المدينة المحرمة

I: The Gate of Supreme Harmony, Ancient Bronze lions 太和门古青铜狮 (379)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处240远

太和门古铜狮子:      太和门前广场有一对大铜狮子,是清乾隆年间铸造的。是故宫最大的一对古铜狮,高2.36米,前后长2.4米,宽0.7米,基座2.04米,总高4.4米。铜狮成双成对,东为雄、西是雌。...

The Gate of Supreme Harmony, Ancient Bronze lions 太和门古青铜狮 (379)

J: Forbidden city 07 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处260远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 07 المدينة المحرمة

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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