故宫-九龙壁(Imperial Palace-Kowloon Wall)
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全景摄影师 jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO 日期和时间 02:13, 30/01/2008 - Views loading...

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故宫-九龙壁(Imperial Palace-Kowloon Wall)

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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故宫-九龙壁:

北京故宫内的皇极殿前,有一处几乎每个来故宫参观的游人必到的地方——九龙壁。我国现存有三处九龙壁,故宫九龙壁、北海九龙壁和山西大同九龙壁。故宫的九龙壁,是其中最精美的一座,堪称我国古代城市雕塑的典范。
故宫九龙壁建于乾隆38年,是一座长20.40米,高3.50米的高大的琉璃照壁。九龙壁的正面共由270块烧制的琉璃塑块拼接而成,照壁饰有九条巨龙,各戏一颗宝珠;背景是山石、云气和海水。

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: 故宫-宁寿门(Imperial Palace-Rather Long Lived Gate)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处70远

故宫-宁寿门: 宁寿门在皇极门北,是宁寿宫区建筑的第二道宫门。这一区域原为明代一号殿旧址,清康熙二十八年(1689年)建为宁寿宫。乾隆三十七年(1772年)至四十一年(1776年)改建宁寿宫时,门制依乾...

故宫-宁寿门(Imperial Palace-Rather Long Lived Gate)

B: 紫禁城 皇極殿

摄影师Hung-Chin Wang, 距离此处120远

紫禁城 皇極殿

C: 故宫-皇极殿(Imperial Palace-Emperor Extremely Palace)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处130远

故宫-皇极殿本名奉天殿,明永乐十八年建成,明嘉靖四十一年改称皇极殿。清顺治二年改名太和殿。自建成后屡遭焚毁,又多次重建,今天所见为清代康熙三十四年重建后的形制。奉天殿/皇极殿/太和殿是中国现存最大的木结...

故宫-皇极殿(Imperial Palace-Emperor Extremely Palace)

D: Forbidden city 12 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处240远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 12 المدينة المحرمة

E: 故宫-古华轩(Imperial Palace-Studiao of ancient Glory )

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处250远

故宫古华轩(Imperial Palace-Studiao of ancient Glory ):古华轩为宁寿宫花园第一进院落的主体建筑。建于乾隆三十七年(1776年)。轩为座北面南的敞轩,面阔3间带回...

故宫-古华轩(Imperial Palace-Studiao of ancient Glory )

F: 故宫-畅音阁(Imperial Palace-Pavilion Of Cheeeful Melodies)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处250远

故宫-畅音阁:为清宫内廷演戏楼,全称故宫宁寿宫畅音阁大戏楼,位于故宫博物院内养性殿东侧,宁寿宫后区东路南端,座南面北,建筑宏丽。乾隆三十七年(公元1772年)始建,乾隆四十一年(公元1776年)建成。嘉...

故宫-畅音阁(Imperial Palace-Pavilion Of Cheeeful Melodies)

G: Forbidden city 11 المدينة المحرمة

摄影师Ali Barnawi, 距离此处250远

The Forbidden City - المدينة المحرمةThe Palace Museum or the Forbidden City, used as the royal palace...

Forbidden city 11 المدينة المحرمة

I: Forbidden City - YongHo Palace

摄影师Hung-Chin Wang, 距离此处270远

 [後宮甄環傳]裡 雍正皇帝媽媽的寢宮  

Forbidden City - YongHo Palace

J: 故宫-乐寿堂(Imperial Palace-Hail Of Joyful Longevity)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处280远

故宫-乐寿堂:乐寿堂为紫禁城东北隅宁寿宫后区中路建筑之一,其南是养性殿,其北有颐和轩。清乾隆三十七年(1772)建成,嘉庆七年(1802)修葺,光绪十七年(1891)重修。乐寿堂仿长春园淳化轩规制,其南...

故宫-乐寿堂(Imperial Palace-Hail Of Joyful Longevity)

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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