北京圆明园-谐奇趣-3
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全景摄影师 jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO 日期和时间 03:01, 25/04/2007 - Views loading...

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北京圆明园-谐奇趣-3

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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北京圆明园-谐奇趣:

谐奇趣位于西洋楼景区最西部,由谐奇趣主楼、主楼前后喷泉及北边的供水楼组成。是西洋楼景区最早建成的西洋建筑。

谐奇趣从乾隆十二年(1747)就开始筹划,由西洋传教士意大利人郎世宁和法国人蒋友仁设计,至乾隆十六年(1751)秋季竣工,前后历时四年。

谐奇趣平面呈半圆弧形,主楼为三层。一层、二层都是七间,顶层为三间,顶层两边建有凉台,在一层大殿东西伸出弧形平台游廊,游廊尽头建有两层八角形楼厅,弧形游廊中悬挂康熙至乾隆朝来华觐见的传教士画像。

主楼正南由两边弧形台阶可直接登上二楼平台。平台上围建有琉璃栏杆和西式花纹琉璃栏板。平台两旁还分别各摆放有一对西洋石狮。

谐奇趣殿内设有宝座,宝座后有照壁,宝座与照壁都是由朗世宁设计的。谐奇趣殿内的装饰及陈设也都是西洋风格的。殿内陈设有西洋罗镜灯、挂镜、天体仪、浑天仪、西洋珐琅莲花灯等。在谐奇趣殿内墙上,挂满了西洋进贡来的西洋穿金银线鞘银把西洋剑等。乾隆五十八年(1793)英国使臣马嘎尔尼访华,英王乔治三世为乾隆皇帝祝寿所送的礼物,在正大光明殿呈乾隆皇帝御览后,大多数都摆放在西洋楼景区。其中西洋船模型、鹅颈玻璃灯等物件就被摆放在谐奇趣内。另外,谐奇趣殿内还收藏有《西洋楼铜版图》若干套。

在谐奇趣主楼南北各有一个西洋式喷水池,其中南面的喷水池较大一些,池中心有一只西洋翻尾石鱼,石鱼可冲上喷水。喷水时水柱高达数米。石鱼东西各有一只铜虾,水池北部有铜鹅六只,池南部则分设铜羊、铜猫、铜鸭各二只,口中有水柱向池内喷水。谐奇趣北面的喷水池则要小些,直径只有4.5米,池内是一个由四只铜鱼和四个小喷水塔组成的三层小型喷泉。

在谐奇趣主楼西北建有供谐奇趣喷泉用水的供水楼,俗称蓄水楼。蓄水楼内水源是从北面进水孔引入的。蓄水楼早年是由3匹骡子拉动水车往楼上提水,后因水车轮盘损坏而改用人工提水。

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在附近的图片北京

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I: 北京圆明园-海晏堂-1

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此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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