圆明园海晏堂 Old Summer Palace Haiyan hall
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全景摄影师 jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO 日期和时间 05:07, 25/04/2007 - Views loading...

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圆明园海晏堂 Old Summer Palace Haiyan hall

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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圆明园由圆明园、长春园和绮春园呈倒"品"字分部组成。我们所熟知的西洋楼只在整个圆明园里占很小的一部分,也就是长春园北部的狭长地带。西洋楼是乾隆年间由传教士郎世宁和王致诚设计施工而成,在1860年10月18日被英法联军焚毁,后经军阀混战以及不断地拆除,才变成我们现在在圆明园遗址公园看到的景象。海晏堂是整个西洋楼中最大的一幢建筑,前面的巨大喷水池前呈八字排列着十二生肖青铜雕像,每个时辰一个铜像喷水,正午时十二个一起喷水,水声之大几里以外都可以听到。

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: 北京圆明园-大水法 Old Summer Palace spate law

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处20远

圆明园的西洋楼前有个中西合璧的十二生肖抱石喷泉,叫大水法。建筑师以兽头人身的十二生肖带报一天的十二个时辰,每天按时依次向水池中央喷水,到了中午十二时的时候,十二生肖会同时向水池中心喷泉,场面十分壮观。 ...

北京圆明园-大水法 Old Summer Palace spate law

B: 圆明园远瀛观 The Old Summer Palace far sea observes

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处30远

圆明园远瀛观清乾隆四十八年(公元一七八三年)增建,是西洋楼景区中心建筑之一。建筑主体由汉白玉石构成雕刻有精美绚丽的花纹屋顶上覆盖着五色琉璃瓦,整个建筑建在方形高台之上,气势不凡。

圆明园远瀛观 The Old Summer Palace far sea observes

C: 北京圆明园-远瀛观

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处60远

北京圆明园远瀛观清乾隆四十八年(公元一七八三年)增建,是西洋楼景区中心建筑之一。建筑主体由汉白玉石构成雕刻有精美绚丽的花纹屋顶上覆盖着五色琉璃瓦,整个建筑建在方形高台之上,气势不凡。 

北京圆明园-远瀛观

D: 北京圆明园-海晏堂-1

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处90远

圆明园由圆明园、长春园和绮春园呈倒"品"字分部组成。我们所熟知的西洋楼只在整个圆明园里占很小的一部分,也就是长春园北部的狭长地带。西洋楼是乾隆年间由传教士郎世宁和王致诚设计施工而成,在1860年10月1...

北京圆明园-海晏堂-1

E: Old Summer Palace Beijing- Haiyan Hall-2

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处110远

圆明园由圆明园、长春园和绮春园呈倒"品"字分部组成。我们所熟知的西洋楼只在整个圆明园里占很小的一部分,也就是长春园北部的狭长地带。西洋楼是乾隆年间由传教士郎世宁和王致诚设计施工而成,在1860年10月1...

Old Summer Palace Beijing- Haiyan Hall-2

F: 北京圆明园-海晏堂-3

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处150远

圆明园由圆明园、长春园和绮春园呈倒"品"字分部组成。我们所熟知的西洋楼只在整个圆明园里占很小的一部分,也就是长春园北部的狭长地带。西洋楼是乾隆年间由传教士郎世宁和王致诚设计施工而成,在1860年10月1...

北京圆明园-海晏堂-3

G: 北京圆明园-听松亭

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处170远

圆明园位于北京城西北郊的海淀镇西北,历史上的圆明园是由圆明园、长春园、绮春园(万春园)组成。三园紧相毗连,通称圆明园,共占地5,200余亩(约350公顷),比颐和园的整个范围还要大出近千亩。它是清代封建...

北京圆明园-听松亭

H: 北京圆明园-方外观

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处250远

 北京圆明园-方外观:“方外观”,建于乾隆二十四年(1759年)。为三开间用刻有回纹图案的大理石贴面的欧式小宫殿,屋顶却是模仿中国式的重檐四坡蓝色琉璃瓦顶。上下各三间,两侧有半环形石阶通往二楼。大门和楼...

北京圆明园-方外观

I: 北京 园明园遗址公园 3——被破坏了的清代皇家宫苑

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处340远

圆明园坐落在北京西郊海淀区,与颐和园紧相毗邻。它始建于康熙46年(1709年),亦称“圆明三园”,是圆明园及其附园长春园、万春园的统称,是清代行宫式御园,占地350公顷(5200余亩),其中水面面积约1...

北京 园明园遗址公园 3——被破坏了的清代皇家宫苑

J: 北京圆明园-谐奇趣-4

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处370远

北京圆明园-谐奇趣:谐奇趣位于西洋楼景区最西部,由谐奇趣主楼、主楼前后喷泉及北边的供水楼组成。是西洋楼景区最早建成的西洋建筑。谐奇趣从乾隆十二年(1747)就开始筹划,由西洋传教士意大利人郎世宁和法国人...

北京圆明园-谐奇趣-4

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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