颐和园-多宝琉璃塔
摄影师 EXPERT MAESTRO
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全景摄影师 jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO 日期和时间 08:00, 29/01/2012 - Views loading...

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颐和园-多宝琉璃塔

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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在北京城外现存最大的、建筑保留最完整的皇家园林颐和园的万寿山后,矗立着一座琉璃塔,它的名称叫“多宝佛塔”,也被俗称为“多宝琉璃塔”。

多宝琉璃塔建于清代乾隆十六年(1751年),是乾隆皇帝为庆祝皇太后六十寿辰而建造的,是一座楼阁式与密檐式相结合的塔,塔身呈不等边的八角形,上下共分为七级,通高16米。整座塔身都是用黄、绿、青、蓝、紫五色琉璃砖镶嵌而成。塔身坐南向北,在塔的四周砌有红色围墙,院门朝北,门口树立一座木结构琉璃瓦顶的牌坊。

整座塔的底座为一层汉白玉雕成的须弥座。塔身的一、三、五层比较高大,为楼阁式,而二、四、六、七层的塔身却比较矮小,好似双重檐的楼阁。在楼阁式塔身的北、东、南、西面,正中各设有一个拱券形佛龛,在佛龛中放置有结跏趺坐式琉璃佛像。在大佛龛的周围和塔身的其他四面,布满了一排排的小型佛龛,龛中塑有坐式佛像,共有佛像580尊。这三层塔身上的佛像,均为金黄色琉璃砖镶砌。在塔檐的角下,各悬挂一枚铜铃。在楼阁式塔身的四周,围有镂空琉璃组成的护栏。 在塔顶上置有宝座,四周悬有一圈铜铃,上面是铃铎式刹身,再上面为刹顶。整座塔刹均是用铜制成,并在上面镀金。多宝琉璃塔整体造型优美,各层之间的比例匀称,是清代琉璃塔中的精品。

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在附近的图片北京

map

A: Sphere Summer Palace

摄影师jose Ramirez, 距离此处100远

Sphere Summer Palace

B: Bejing Summer Palace 颐和园 Suzhou Market Street (Suzhoujie)

摄影师Florian Frey // studiobaff.com, 距离此处140远

The Suzhou Market Street (Suzhoujie) at the Rear Lake.With waterway passing through and shops perchin...

Bejing Summer Palace 颐和园 Suzhou Market Street (Suzhoujie)

C: Summerpalace Qingyanfang (清晏舫 )

摄影师Florian Frey // studiobaff.com, 距离此处140远

Summerpalace Qingyanfang (清晏舫 )

D: The Tower of Buddhist Incense 佛香阁 (073)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处170远

佛香阁:      佛香阁高41米,建筑在20米高的石造台基上,内有八根坚硬的铁犁木巨柱支撑,结构复杂,独具匠心,高台矗立,气势磅礴。它将东边的圆明园、畅春园,西边的静明园、静宜园以及万寿山周转十几里以...

The Tower of Buddhist Incense 佛香阁 (073)

E: 颐和园-佛香阁(Summer Palace - Buddha fragrant Chinese style pavilion)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处170远

颐和园-佛香阁(Summer Palace - Buddha fragrant Chinese style pavilion) 佛香阁是一座宏伟的塔式宗教建筑,为全园建筑布局的中心。"佛香"二字来源于佛...

颐和园-佛香阁(Summer Palace - Buddha fragrant Chinese style pavilion)

F: Summer Palace Beijing, Temple entrance

摄影师Henk Keijzer, 距离此处180远

Summer Palace Beijing, Temple entrance

Summer Palace Beijing, Temple entrance

G: "Longevity Hill Kunming Lake" stone tablet "万寿山昆明湖"石碑 (091)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处180远

万寿山昆明湖石碑:      万寿山昆明湖石碑在颐和园万寿山前山东侧。碑身用整块巨石雕造,通高9.875米(其中碑座高1.97米,碑身高4.26米,碑额高3.465米)。乾隆十六年(1751年)建。正面...

"Longevity Hill Kunming Lake" stone tablet "万寿山昆明湖"石碑 (091)

H: Summer Palace, Longevity Hill 颐和园-万寿山 (085)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处190远

万寿山:      万寿山为燕山余脉,高58.59米,海拔108.94米,前临昆明湖。元朝名翁山,山前有湖名翁山泊。元朝至元二十九年(1292年),科学家郭守敬开挖通慧河,将昌平及西山一带泉水汇引湖内,...

Summer Palace, Longevity Hill 颐和园-万寿山 (085)

I: 北京颐和园-须弥灵境址

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处200远

颐和园画中游是万寿山西部一组重要景点建筑。它依山而建,和万寿山东部的景福阁处在对等的位置上。    此组建筑,正面有一座两层的楼阁,左右各有一楼,名“爱山”、“借秋”。阁后立有一座石牌坊,牌坊后边的殿名...

北京颐和园-须弥灵境址

J: 颐和园-宝云阁(Summer Palace - baoyun Chinese style pavilion)

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处200远

颐和园-宝云阁:宝云阁又称“铜殿”,据说是乾隆皇帝为显示皇权的高贵和尊严尔特意建造,通体使用的材料,据说是高丽国王进献的上好青铜,当时造价折银65000余两,几乎是乾隆朝国库储备银的千分之一。建成后每逢...

颐和园-宝云阁(Summer Palace - baoyun Chinese style pavilion)

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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