北京天坛-祈年殿-2008
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全景摄影师 jacky cheng EXPERT MAESTRO 日期和时间 15:22, 28/01/2008 (CST +0800) - Views loading...

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北京天坛-祈年殿-2008

世界 > 亚洲 > 中国 > 北京

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祈年殿(the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest)

建于明永乐十八年(1420年),初名“大祈殿”,原为矩形大殿,用于合祀天、地,嘉靖二十四年(1545年)改为三重顶圆殿,殿顶覆盖上青、中黄、下绿三色琉璃,寓意天、地、万物。
清乾隆十六年(1751)改三色瓦为统一的蓝瓦金顶,定名“祈年殿”,是孟春(正月)祈谷的专用建筑。
祈年殿内有28根金丝楠木大柱,里圈的四根寓意春夏秋冬四季,中间一圈12根寓意12个月,最外一圈12根寓意12时辰以及周天星宿。
祈年殿是天坛的主体建筑,又称祈谷殿,是明清两代皇帝孟春祈谷之所。它是一座镏金宝顶、蓝瓦红柱、彩绘金碧辉煌的三层重檐圆形大殿。祈年殿采用的是上殿下屋的构造形式。大殿建于高6米的白石雕栏环绕的三层汉白玉圆台上,即为祈谷坛,颇有拔地擎天之势,壮观恢弘。祈年殿为砖木结构,殿高38米,直径32米,三层重檐向上逐层收缩作伞状。建筑独特,无大梁长檩及铁钉,二十八根楠木巨柱环绕排列,支撑着殿顶的重量。祈年殿是按照“敬天礼神”的思想设计的,殿为圆形,象征天圆;瓦为蓝色,象征蓝天。殿内柱子的数目,据说也是按照天象建立起来的。内围的四根“龙井柱”象征一年四季春、夏、秋、冬;中围的十二根“金柱”象征一年十二个月;外围的十二根“檐柱”象征一天十二个时辰。中层和外层相加的二十四根,象征一年二十四个节气。三层总共二十八根象征天上二十八星宿。再加上柱顶端的八根童柱,总共三十六根,象征三十六天罡。宝顶下的雷公柱则象征皇帝的“一统天下”。祈年殿的藻井是由两层斗栱及一层天花组成,中间为金色龙凤.

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A: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈年殿 (1261)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处10远

祈年殿:      祈年殿,始建于明永乐十八年(1420年),初名“大祈殿”,原为矩形大殿,嘉靖二十四年(1545年)改为三重顶圆殿,殿顶覆盖上青、中黄、下绿三色琉璃寓意天、地、万物。清乾隆十六年(17...

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈年殿 (1261)

B: 天壇 祈年殿

摄影师Hung-Chin Wang, 距离此处10远

The temple was a place which the Ming and Qing dynasties' emperors hold the annual prayer ceremony fo...

天壇 祈年殿

C: 北京天坛-祈年殿-2-2008

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处40远

祈年殿(the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest):建于明永乐十八年(1420年),初名“大祈殿”,原为矩形大殿,用于合祀天、地,嘉靖二十四年(1545年)改为三重顶圆殿,...

北京天坛-祈年殿-2-2008

D: Temple of Heaven / 天坛 /天坛/ Tiāntán/ Northside / facing Temple of Harvest

摄影师Florian Frey // studiobaff.com, 距离此处50远

The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (simplified Chinese: 天坛; traditional Chinese: 天壇;...

Temple of Heaven / 天坛 /天坛/ Tiāntán/ Northside / facing Temple of Harvest

E: White marble Altar of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈谷石坛 (1273)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处60远

祈谷石坛:      祈谷坛的祭坛为坛殿结合的圆形建筑,是根据古代“屋下祭帝”的说法建立的。坛为三层汉白玉石坛,高5.6米,下层直径91米,中层直径80米,上层直径68米;石坛东西南北四个方向均有楼梯通...

White marble Altar of Prayer for Good Harvest  祈谷石坛 (1273)

F: Pray Valley Altar 祈谷坛 (1255)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处60远

祈谷坛:      祈谷坛,建于明永乐十八年(1420年),主要建筑有祈年殿、皇乾殿、东西配殿、祈年门、神厨、宰牲亭、长廊,附属建筑有内外墙、具服台、丹陛桥,内坛墙上东南西北各设天门,西外坛墙设祈谷坛门...

Pray Valley Altar 祈谷坛 (1255)

G: 天坛-皇乾殿-2008

摄影师jacky cheng, 距离此处90远

天坛-皇乾殿(The Temple of Heaven - emperor does the palace ):皇乾殿是祈谷坛的“天库”。大典时祈年殿所供奉的“皇天上帝”和皇帝列祖列宗的神牌平日在殿内供...

天坛-皇乾殿-2008

H: The Hall of Imperial Zenith 皇乾殿 (1267)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处90远

皇乾殿:      皇乾殿,坐落于祈年殿以北,祈年墙环绕的矩形院落里,由三门式琉璃瓦门与祈年殿相同。皇乾殿是一座庑殿式大殿,覆盖蓝色的琉璃瓦,下面有三层汉白玉石栏杆的祈谷石坛基座。它是专为平时供奉“皇天...

The Hall of Imperial Zenith 皇乾殿 (1267)

I: 北京天坛祈年殿远眺

摄影师刘运增, 距离此处90远

天坛位于北京城南端,是明清两代皇帝祭祀天地之神和祈祷五谷丰收的地方。严谨的建筑布局,奇特的建筑结构,瑰丽的建筑装饰,被认为是我国现存的一组最精致,最美丽的古建筑群,天坛不仅是中国古建筑中的明珠,也是世界...

北京天坛祈年殿远眺

J: Clothes Changing Platform 具服台 (1225)

摄影师Dxinwei, 距离此处240远

具服台:      丹陛桥桥东有一方形砖台,称具服台,三面有雕石栏杆,是皇帝祭祀时漱洗更衣的地方。每年在祈年殿举行祈谷礼时,先在此台上支搭圆形帷帐,称为“幄次”,通称“小金殿”,是个活动的房屋。皇帝由斋...

Clothes Changing Platform 具服台 (1225)

此全景拍摄于北京

这是一个概述北京

Overview and History

In the Stone Age, "Peking Man" lived near Beijing -- as many as 500,000 years ago. The earliest relics in China are stone tools dating to this time period. Between four and five thousand years ago there were agricultural settlements southwest of Beijing. They were the beginning of a city that would go through several name changes over the millenia.

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huang Di battled Chiyou "in the wilderness of the Zhou prefecture." Zhoulu is a town to the west of modern Beijing. The Yellow Emperor's successor, Emperor Yao, established a capital city called Youdo. Youdo became a place called Ji, and Ji was taken over by the Marquis of Yan during the period of the Warring States (475 B.C.)

Ji remained an important city for ten centuries. From China's first feudal empire through to the end of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was a strategic military center in the campaign to unite all of China.

By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907 A.D., the Qidan army came from the north and occupied Ji. They called it Nanjing, which meant "southern capital." During this time the Liao Dynasty ruled and carried out many reconstruction projects in the city, fortifying it for greater military use.

The Nuzhen army conquered the Liao and established the Jin dynasty as of 1115 A.D., moving the city of Ji and renaming it "Zhongdu" which means "Central Capital." This meant more expansion and construction of palaces until the city spanned five kilometers across and contained an estimated one million people.

Mongolian raiders invaded Zhongdu in 1215 A.D. and renamed it Dadu. Under Kublai Khan the Yuan Dynasty took Dadu as its capital and unified China!

Since Zhongdu had been destroyed by fire in the change from Jin to Yuan dynasties, Kublai Khan took on a reconstruction project that was to expand the city into rectangular shape. It became the political center of the country with three main areas -- imperial palaces, the city walls, and the canal.

By the coming of the thirteenth century, Dadu was a world famous city which astounded Marco Polo when he arrived. In his record he writes, "You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was..."

In 1368 Ming soldiers captured Dadu and renamed it Beiping or "Northern Peace." It went through another period of reconstruction which saw walls twelve meters high built around its perimeter, walls ten meters thick which took fifteen years to build. When they were done, Beiping became the official capital of the Ming Dynasty. With the completion of the palaces and gardens in 1420, Emperor Yongle renamed the city Beijing, "Northern Capital."

Beijing grew once more and took on a rectangular shape with two distinct sections, the Inner City (Tartar) and the Outer City (Chinese). Its city planners gave it an organized arrangement that still felt relaxed.

The Qing Dynasty came along circa 1644 A.D. and the Manchus built extended suburban gardens. These took more than a whole century to make, but when they were finished the open-air pavilions and palaces stood as a masterpiece of Chinese architecture. This was proper to show the power and refinement of traditional China, a fitting design for the capital of the empire.

The Qing Dynasty lasted until 1911 but collapsed into chaos at the hands of the Northern Warlords. Beijing suffered a lack of leadership until 1949, when the People's Liberation Army entered the city. From Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.

Since then it has continued to expand, surpassing the nine gates of the inner city wall, beyond the seven outer gates, and into the suburbs. Beijing now takes up 750 square kilometers! The city retains its old symmetry with a central axis that runs north-south, and the Imperial Palace Museum at the center. This palace was once called the "Forbidden City" but it is now a museum open to the public.

Getting There

The Beijing Capital International Airport is located 25km northeast of the city. It is the center of China's civil aviation network and it connects to 69 cities worldwide. The airport is linked to the city by bus, taxi and Beijing Subway Airport Line.

The city government operates one bus line and private buses go and come from several hotels. The taxi stand is outside the terminal, as always, so don't ride with the drivers who harass you inside the terminal. A ride to the city center should cost about 70 RMB plus 15 RMB highway toll. You should also know that there's an airport tax of 90 RMB for international travelers. Keep your receipt!

Transportation

Within the city you can choose from 67,000 GPS-equipped taxis, the bus or the metro. Half of their buses are running on natural gas now, which is a good move considering the city is adding fifty new bus routes per year. Whoa!

The metro has two routes, the Loop Line and Line One. The Loop has sixteen stations and it runs parallel to where the city wall stood in the Ming era. Line One has twenty-one stops going from the suburbs on one side all the way across to the other side. It is safe to assume that there will be more metro lines to follow as Beijing grows.

People and Culture

One of the unique sights in Beijing is a park filled with retired people doing their exercises early in the morning. Tai ch'i, QiGong, sword dancing and shadow boxing are forms of exercise and relaxation which have existed for more than two thousand years and are still popular today.

Drinking tea in a teahouse and enjoying a folk opera in an old-style theater are both popular activities in Beijing culture. Beijing has more bars and pubs than any other Chinese city (more than 400), and it's also full of antique shops, silk markets and museums.

Things to do, Recommendations

Beijing is massive and filled with interesting things to explore. For just a few examples, take a look at these:

The National Stadium (bird's nest), the Water Cube, and ruins of the Yuan Dynasty city wall.

If you like art, you have to check out the 798 Art District. It's named for Factory #798 and the district contains hundreds of galleries, bookstores and restaurants. Have fun!

Text by Steve Smith.

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