Sitting on a rocky promontory and surrounded by water on three sides, the well-defended Pembroke Castle is one of many historic castles in Wales. It is the only castle in Britain to be built over a large cave, known as the Wogan Cave, which served as a dock for ships.
It was first established as a timber structure in 1093. It was rebuilt in stone by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, in 1189 and later improved and expanded by one of his sons. In 1389, the castle reverted to Richard II and fell into decline.
The castle was attacked by Owain Glyndwr in 1400 but avoided damage after he was paid off. Ownership returned
a new Earl, Henry VI's half-brother Jasper Tewdwr. He developed it into a residence, with his son Harri Tewdwr being born there in 1457. As Henry VII, he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field and established the Tudor dynasty.
Wales (Cymru in the Welsh language) is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The major cities are Cardiff, Swansea, Newport and Bangor. The city of St. Davids is the smallest city in the UK with a population around 2000. Wales itself has a population of around 3 million. The Welsh language is spoken by around 20% of the population.