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Japanese Garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac
Belgrade

Japanese Garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac in Belgrade, lives in a landscape setting concert silence

 
Japanese tradition of the construction of gardens and gardening has been developed over a thousand years, and it svojevrsan term culture of the Far East. Japanese garden does not belong to the field of horticulture. For its comprehensive view is necessary to bear in mind the aspects of art, science, history, engineering, philosophy. Japanese Garden in life play a very important role and they are a reflection of their attitude towards nature and the awareness that man is part of nature, and stone, plant, animal, with which man should live in harmony.

 

The main purpose of a garden is to bring nature and serenity to the closest living environment, as opposed to accelerated and crowded everyday. However, the Japanese garden is nature in its original form, but it is still nature transformed by man.

Namely, when the city of gardens, nature is inspiration and the context of her landscapes are selected as models that are then used in a new context as elements of composition of the garden.

Depending on the need to satisfy, there are several types of gardens: for walking (style applications) - a garden whose main feature is the path that leads from one point to another with whom one may consider the various scenes, for meditation, mostly with civil engineering in Soin style - in which the garden is seen from the central building, with an emphasis on creating carefully composed scenes reminiscent of the picture and can be considered long, for fun - the style of Funa Asobi (boat to enjoy) - focused around an oval pool that the eunuchs driving a boat for pleasure, style Kaiju (much pleasure) - in which the various gardens, mostly tea, constructed around a central pond, and thus show remarkable changes of scenes.
There are different variations on these styles.

There are "wet garden" and "Green Garden" - by the water and greenery, but there are also completely dry gardens such as the known type of kare sansui - "a garden without trees" or "dry landscape" and it is a Zen garden that is typically associated with the Zen temples and is intended for meditation.

The basic elements used to construct a Japanese garden are: stone, soil, water, plants and trees. With these elements go to the building such as for example tea huts, gates and fences in the form of ditches, hedges or walls, and eventual construction of artificial hills.

 

Japanese garden is based on a combination of these elements and their adaptation of a given environment. The technique šakej or "borrowed landscape", which seeks to incorporate the surrounding landscape perspective of the garden. For example, if you are in the distance a mountain, sea or plain real perspective in the garden that will allow these scenes are extended as part of the garden. The art of building a Japanese garden is the art of arranging or grouping of stones that make the skeleton of the garden. Stone is a sacred element in Japan and has a different symbolic meaning. Grouping of stones is not arbitrary or not it's some "freestyle", but using different ancient scriptures which presents principles and techniques of grouping of stones and other elements of the garden.

The symbolic beauty of the garden comes from the expression šintoističkih beliefs - the habitation of the gods in unusual places and objects in nature, and this may be a special stone, a beautiful waterfall, a tree that has long resisted time or for example, Mount Fuji. Later, over time, have been synthesized and elements that express the Taoist and Buddhist tradition. So they have historically appeared first type of "Garden of Eden" during the domination of a Buddhist sect, "Pure Land" (Hejan period of 794 - 1185) who looked, according to the performances from the file, as one of the Buddhist paradises - with a lake full of lotus flowers and a bridge that leads to the central islands, then the Zen garden that appears in the 12th century and has a distinctive style with abstract symbolism dry landscape and simple materials, and at the end of tea gardens appear with tea masters who are devising a special ritual - tea ceremony, in the 16th century. Continental influence the culture of China and Korea to the culture of Japan is reflected in the gardens and bridges in the Chinese style and stone sources. In the Edo period (1603-1868) made a synthesis of all previous cultural influences and forms.

Modern Japanese gardens are always a combination of these elements in a given environment in a particular cultural context. They are now found in urban areas and within public parks, botanical garden, shopping, restaurants, office buildings, department stores, private homes, can be found sometimes in the tops of apartment buildings on a relatively small area.
Our Japanese garden in the Botanical Garden Jevremovac is a variation of the type of garden for walking and watching the changing scenes which are provided from different positions along the tracks that were made about the elements of lakes and streams. In other words, it is a garden for a walk with a lake and a stream, because there are variants of the garden for a walk only with the lake.

Japanese garden is asymmetric and provides a typical configuration of the terrain and landscape on several levels, which can hardly be seen at a glance. It was inspired by nature, because she can not stand the strict symmetry. Japanese art avoids symmetry because it is a symbol of real estate, completion, and asymmetric gives the impression of incompleteness (and the constant pursuit of perfection) and expresses life. Trail we come to the lake and meet up with three horizontal grouped rocks - horizontal triad, which is a kind of focal point and divides the whole lake approach a tea pavilion, located on the left. It should be emphasized that these rocks of the composition which has a symbolic and sacred meaning and they may not sit or stand.

Across the lake takes us to the bridge of wooden planks that are joined to form an unusual bar on our way and this time is not linear, so we must be careful how we walk. This is connected with the belief that demons are going straight to the track and path in the garden mostly meander. The bridge and other details that can be found in the garden, it requires attention, concentration, a man who came to relax, contemplate, and requires a measured, slow pace, as opposed to accelerated everyday. With that bridge when we look to the left, we will see another, larger wooden bridge in the Chinese style, which connects the two hills - one in which the artificial tea pavilion, and other natural that stretch along the path of tree bark, and run as a land of stones which we can climb the steepest mountain road. When you cross the lake like walking on water (where you can see turtles in California, and soon the Japanese carp) arrive on the opposite side of where we go vertical triad - one large and two small lower stone, symbolizing the Buddha and his two companions, that symbolize the triad of man, heaven and earth.

There is also another lake, which is not to come, but it can be seen from the bridge or from a different perspective from the hills.

Further back we can continue to walk in several directions. One leads to the wall with a window and a thatched roof, which divides the garden from the environment, the second water bamboo behind the charter held by a wooden fence woven young branches, the third to the small stone bridge that was winding creek (kjokusui).

So, the garden for a walk has been carefully designed compositions that require a man of physical activity, active walking and open the senses to enjoy the various facilities. Changing scenes can be long to watch / listen to the "suitable location" at various points in the garden and offered refreshments senses, calm and relaxation. They are living landscapes that we turn to its symphony of spheres, the festive ambience, concert silence. We are here to make their presence, walking, movement, breathing, view, modify or disturb the harmony. Some details are there to provoke astonishment, delight and surprise. For example, a single rock that was placed on the lawn like a meteor was thrown into the landscape.

The grass is not trampled and going exclusively to the trails.

Tea pavilion is a separate entity and is home to the famous Japanese gardens cultivated tea ceremony. In Belgrade has not yet fully operational because there is no master of tea.

The Japanese garden has colorful flowers and a gorgeous fountain as is common in Western culture. The Japanese cherish and respect the modest crop, moss, ferns, wild flowers, and bonsai. The trees that the Japanese pine, maple, cherry. They all have a symbolic meaning. These are mostly plain, green crops that can cover the hills in the form of carpets, and bushes and hedges to shear waves or as they are made round and square haircut.

Compared to Western gardens, Japanese gardens are used differently. "The Japanese know how to view and garden is always a function of that knowledge," said one art historian. That means no stomping, and does not lie on the grass, do not practice some fun recreational activities, as in other western parks. So need specific training and sensitization of visitors to be able to enjoy the garden and know its capabilities, and on the other side and restrictions. It is interesting to listen to the comments of visitors such as: "It's nice this is, just where are benches to sit down?" and then the proposal where they could be set. Or "How will this way by the gravel with the wheelchair, do not come until pave!" , "I was in a zoo and there's so many restrictions like this, you must not sit on the stone, you must not play with water ..." , "What is the Japanese, why is it called a Japanese garden? Well, we all have this, this is like our Sumadija landscape - a creek, and one cottage, so are our peasant huts, only these little bridges ..."

Or another: "It's nice this is, this is great, it would be good if all of our parks were arranged like this" or "Japanese Garden is beautiful! Will be extended?"

There are many different comments and expectations ...

"But sabi, the patina that ignorant people can not see ... in any case must not be sacrificed," says a strict doctrine of the Japanese gardens.

Virtuelne panorame

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Copyright: Saša Stojanović
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 10636x5318
Taken: 30/05/2011
Uploaded: 30/05/2011
Updated: 06/01/2019
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Tags: japanese; garden; botanical; jevremovac; japanski; vrt; botanicka; basta; beograd; belgrade; europe; serbia; srbija
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