Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory. Along with the French Robert Esnault-Pelterie, the German-Romanian Hermann Oberth and the American Robert H. Goddard, he is considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry and astronautics. His works later inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko and contributed to the success of the Soviet space program.
In the outskirts of Kaluga is the wooden house in which Tsiolkovsky lived. In 1936, one year after his death, this house was turned into a memorial house museum and is now part of the museum organization. The museum also incorporates a scientific effort to study the life and works of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.
Kaluga Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. It was created in 1944 out of four other oblasts: Moskva Oblast, Orel Oblast, Smolensk Oblast, and Tula Oblast. It is located at the historical region of the former Kaluga Governorate.