From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Italy, officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary
republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia,
San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate; due to its shape,
it is often referred to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state.
Since classical times, ancient Carthaginians, Phoenicians, and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts
inhabiting the centre and north of Italy respectively and various different Italic tribes and peoples dispersed throughout the country. The Italic tribe
known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. Rome ultimately
emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean basin, conquering much of the ancient world and becoming the leading cultural, political, and religious
centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican
governments, Christianity and the Latin script.
Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy,
straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa.
Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104
residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces,
and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics.
The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola
Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies,
as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.